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[2] Indeed he devised the compact order and the equipment of the phalanx, imitating the close order fighting with overlapping shields of the warriors at Troy,1 and was the first to organize the Macedonian phalanx.

1 See Hom. Il. 13.131ff.“ Spear crowded spear,
Shield, helmet, man press'd helmet, man and shield;
The hairy crests of their resplendent casques
Kiss'd close at every nod, so wedged they stood.
”(Cowper's translation.) These lines are quoted of the phalanx by Polybius 18.28.6 and Curtius Rufus 3.2.13.

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