And now it will be useful to distinguish those Greeks who
chose the side of the barbarians, in order that, incurring our censure here, their example may,
by the obloquy visited upon them, deter for the future any who may become traitors to the
The Aenianians, Dolopians, Melians,1
Perrhaebians, and Magnetans took the side of the
barbarians even while the defending force was still at Tempe
, and after its departure the Achaeans of Phthia, Locrians, Thessalians, and
the majority of the Boeotians went over to the barbarians.
the Greeks who were meeting in congress at the Isthmus2
voted to make the Greeks who
voluntarily chose the cause of the Persians pay a tithe to the gods, when they should be
successful in the war, and to send ambassadors to those Greeks who were neutral to urge them to
join in the struggle for the common freedom.
Of the latter,
some joined the alliance without reservation, while others postponed any decision for a
considerable time, clinging to their own safety alone and anxiously waiting for the outcome of
the war; the Argives, however, sending ambassadors to the common congress, promised to join the
alliance if the congress would give them a share in the command.
To them the representatives declared plainly that, if they thought it a more terrible
thing to have a Greek as general than a barbarian as master, they would do well to remain
neutral, but if they were ambitious to secure the leadership of the Greeks, they should, it was
stated, first have accomplished deeds deserving of this leadership and then strive for such an
honour. After these events, when the ambassadors sent by Xerxes came to Greece
and demanded both earth and water, all3
the states manifested in their replies the zeal they felt for the common freedom.
When Xerxes learned that the Hellespont
had been bridged and the canal4
had been dug through
, he left Sardis
and made his way toward the Hellespont
; and when he had arrived at Abydus
, he led his army over the bridge into Europe
. And as he advanced through Thrace
, he added to his forces many soldiers from both the Thracians and
When he arrived at the city called
Doriscus, he ordered his fleet to come there, and so both arms of his forces were gathered into
one place. And he held there also the enumeration of the entire army, and the number of his
land forces was over eight hundred thousand men, while the sum total of his ships of war
exceeded twelve hundred, of which three hundred and twenty were Greek, the Greeks providing the
complement of men and the king supplying the vessels. All the remaining ships were listed as
barbarian; and of these the Egyptians supplied two hundred, the Phoenicians three hundred, the
Cilicians eighty, the Pamphylians forty, the Lycians the same number, also the Carians eighty,
and the Cyprians one hundred and fifty.
Of the Greeks the
Dorians who dwelt off Caria
, together with the
Rhodians and Coans, sent forty ships, the Ionians, together with the Chians and Samians, one
hundred, the Aeolians, together with the Lesbians and Tenedans, forty, the peoples of the
region of the Hellespont
, together with those who
dwelt along the shores of the Pontus
, eighty, and the
inhabitants of the islands fifty; for the king had won over to his side the islands lying
within the Cyanean Rocks5
and Triopium and Sunium.
Triremes made up the multitude we have listed, and the transports for the cavalry
numbered eight hundred and fifty, and the triaconters three thousand. Xerxes, then, was busied
with the enumeration of the armaments at Doriscus.