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Next day the two armies are drawn up opposite one another in the plain. The organization of the Lacedaemonian army appears in all its excellence.

οἵ τε Ἀργεῖοι καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι: the copula τε does not connect the two substs., but stands opp. to τε in οἵ τε Λακεδαιμόνιοι. Thus a paratactical opposition of the two members of the sent. is brought about; on the one hand . . . on the other hand (cf. i. 8. 14 f.; 26. 8 f.; 57. 3 f.; ii. 22. 3 ff.; 64. 28 f., etc.). If ὡς were inserted before ὁρῶσι (Kr. and Meineke), it would interfere with the peculiarly Thucydidean structure of the sent.: “on the one hand, the Argives drew themselves up for battle; on the other, the Lacedaemonians, as they are returning to their former position, see the enemy already drawn up in battle array and brought down from the hill.” The order of these last words is the reverse of the order of the events. See on i. 90. 4. Cl. suggests that ὄντας may have been lost before πάντας. Since the Lacedaemonians had now attained their object of drawing the enemy down into the plain as expressed in c. 65. 14 ff., it seems strange that they should be surprised at finding them there, except in so far as they may have expected them to wait a little longer. What follows is evidently told by Thuc. as a peculiarly good example of their excellent military organization, and this idea must be contained in the next sent., μάλιστα δὴ κτἑ., since the continuation with the words διὰ βραχείας γάρ evidently gives a reason for what immediately precedes. Yet this necessary connexion is certainly not clearly expressed in the text. For the various emendations proposed, see App.

ἢν περιτύχωσιν: τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις, Schol.

πρὸς τὸ Ἡράκλειον: cf. c. 64. 22.

δἰ ὀλίγου: at a short distance. διά, which is here used in a local sense, is used in a temporal sense in 7, διὰ βραχείας μελλήσεως, after a short hesitation, i.e. after the interval of a short delay.

ἐς ἐμέμνηντο: as far back as they remembered; μετὰ τὴν τῶν ἀνθρώπων μνήνην, Schol.

παρασκευὴ αὐτοῖς ἐγίγνετο: i.e. τὴν παρασκευὴν ἐποιοῦντο.

ὑπὸ σπουδῆς : used also in iii. 33. 12; viii. 107. 1. Elsewhere κατὰ σπουδήν and διὰ σπουδῆς.

ἄρχεται: pass. as in ii. 41. 11; iii. 46. 21.

πολεμάρχοις κτἑ.: on the Spartan military organization, see Hermann, Griech. Staatsalt. § 29; Schoemann, Antiq. of Greece, I. p. 279 ff.; Gilbert, Griech. Staatsalt. I. p. 75 f.; 49 f.

παραγγέλσεις: the special orders for the execution of δέον of 12. παράγγελσις is an order not given by the trumpet but passed along the ranks in such a way as not to attract the attention of the enemy. See Kr. on Xen. Anab. iv. 1. 5.

ταχεῖαι ἐπέρχονται: they reach their destination quickly. Cf. iii. 29. 4, σχολαῖοι κομισθέντες. Cobet's proposal, περιέρχονται, is less appropriate with ταχεῖαι used adv.

πᾶν...τὸ στρατόπεδον...ἄρχοντες ἀρχόντων εἰσί : “nearly the whole army consists of officers who in turn have officers under them.” (εἰσί is pl. agreeing with the pred. subst.) Further details are given in c. 68. § 3, from which it appears that πλὴν ὀλίγου, referring to those who have no one under them, is not to be taken too literally.

τὸ ἐπιμελὲς τοῦ δρωμένου: the use of the neut. adj. or partie. for the corresponding abstract subst. is very common in Thuc. See on i. 36. 4.

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