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This order is disobeyed, consequently the left wing is defeated, but the centre and right wing gain a decisive victory.

ξυνέβη κτἑ.: the two clauses τόν τε Ἀριστοκλέα . . . μὴ θελῆσαι παρελθεῖν and καὶ τοὺς πολεμίους φθάσαι τῇ προσμίξει depend upon ξυνέβη. Between these is inserted a third clause, ἀλλὰ καὶ . . . μαλακισθῆναι, which is really parenthetical, but is formally dependent upon ξυνέβη because it is attracted by its surroundings into the acc. and inf. See on c. 48. 3. St. would like to read ἔφευγον and δόξαντες, but it is more likely that Thuc. employed this peculiar form of attraction than that it crept in as a later corruption.—ἅτε: const. with παραγγείλαντι, for ἅτε is always joined with parties. in Thuc. Cf. iv. 94. 7; 130. 25; vii. 44. 30; 58. 20; 85. 15; viii. 52. 13. The two adv. expressions, ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἐφόδῳ and ἐξ ὀλίγου (at short notice) mutually explain one another.

φεύγειν: they were exiled, doubtless after a trial. Cf. c. 26. 24.—δόξαντας μαλακισθῆναι: because they were considered (either by the people or by their judges) to have acted like cowards.

φθάσαι τῇ προσμίξει: equiv. to προσμίσγοντας φθάσαι, they got ahead of them with their attack, i.e. they attacked them before the movement was carried out. The verb προσμιγνύναι in the sense of attack occurs in i. 111. 13; ii. 39. 17; iv. 96. 6. The use of the dat. is peculiar. St. compares Dem. XXXI. 38, ὀργῇ καὶ τρόπου προπετείᾳ φθάσας τὸν λογισμόν. See App.

ἐπὶ τοὺς Σκιρίτας: this stands before the conj. ὡς for emphasis. Cf. i. 19. 2; ii. 64. 17; iii. 56. 26; iv. 27. 2. As the two lochi did not move to fill the space left vacant (τὸ διάκενον τοῦτο) by the departure of the Sciritae, Agis commanded the latter to return to the main body of the army (σφίσι like ἀπὸ σφῶν in 17, and προσμῖξαι as in c. 58. 3 and iii. 106. 14). This, however, they were unable to do, because the enemy were already between them and their friends. See App.

ξυγκλῇσαι: intr. as in iv. 35. 2.

ἀλλὰ μάλιστα δή: the force of this is the same as that of μάλιστα δή of c. 66. 6, except that it is strengthened by ἀλλά.

ἐμπειρίᾳ : the experience and the ease and accuracy in the execution of manoeuvres which result from experience. In this the Lacedaemonians were inferior throughout (κατὰ πάντα ἐλασσωθέντες). Indeed, this was the first great battle upon open ground in which they had engaged for many years (see MüllerStrübing, Thuc. Forsch. p. 12 f.), and at the very beginning of the battle they did not succeed in carrying out the movements commanded by Agis. Nevertheless they proved that they were superior in courage, and thereby won the victory. ἔδειξαν περιγενόμενοι, showed by the result that they were superior (const. as in c. 9. 40 and iv. 73. 8), is the expression of one who regards the battle from a later point of view; hence the aor. (not περιγιγνόμενοι with Poppo and St.). The account of the actual events is introduced by the following γάρ. See App.

αὐτῶν: i.e. τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων. The gen. of the pron. stands first as in i. 30. 14; iv. 199. 2.

οἱ χίλιοι λογάδες: cf. c. 67. 13.—οὐ ξυγκλῃσθέν: cf. μὴ δυνηθῆναι ξυγκλῇσαι, 7.— 15. τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους: i.e. those who, acc. to c. 67. 5 f., had been placed next to (ἑξῆς) the Sciritae and Brasideans, but had been separated from them by their movement toward the left (c. 71. § 3). The enemy now came in between the Sciritae and the Lacedaemonians, and attacked the flank of the latter.—διέφθειρον: impf., “they inflicted great losses upon them.” Cf. iii. 98. 12.—κυκλωσάμενοι: since they had advanced into the διάκενον.

ἐς τὰς ἁμάξας : ἔσω τῶν ἁμαξῶν, Schol. Among the baggage-wagons which stood behind the army. Near these the πρεσβύτεροι were drawn up in reserve, ἐπιτεταγμένοι.

οἱ τριακόσιοι ἱππῆς καλούμενοι: cf. Hdt.viii. 124. 13, τριηκόσιοι Σπαρτιητέων λογάδες, οὗτοι οἵπερ ἱππέες καλέονται (perhaps Kr., followed by St. and v. Herwerden, is right in inserting οἱ before ἱππῆς). These men who ‘were chosen from the flower of the Spartan youth, served as a royal bodyguard as well on foot as on horseback.’ Hermann, Griech. Staatsalt. § 29. 15 ff. They certainly served on foot, but of their use as cavalry there is no proof. See Gilbert, Griech. Staatsalt. I. p. 77.

τῶν Ἀργείων: see App.—τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις καὶ πέντε λόχοις ὠνομασμένοις: ἅμα ἀναγνωστέον πεντελόχοις. Schol. Nothing is known of the relation of these divisions of the Argive troops to one another, or to the χίλιοι λογάδες of 14, and c. 67. 13. ὠνομασμένοις indicates that πέντε λόχοι or πεντέλοχοι was the conventional name of a division of troops, which seems, in conjunction with the πρεσβύτεροι, to be identical with the ἄλλοι Ἀργεῖοι of c. 67. 15. See Arnold's note on this passage.— 23. Ἀθηναίων τοῖς παρατεταγμένοις: this is that part of the Attic contingent (cf. c. 61. 1; 67. 17) which stood next the Orneatae, furthest toward the right. The fortunes of the main body of the Athenians are related in c. 73. 4 ff.—οὐδὲ ἐς χεῖρας ὑπομείναντας: i.e. οὐδὲ μέχρι τοῦ ἐς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν ὑπομείναντας: “not waiting until they came to close quarters.” Similarly, μήτε ἐς ἀλκὴν ὑπομεῖναι, iii. 108. 5.

καταπατηθέντας: sc. ὑπ᾽ ἀλλήλων, as Grote, VI. c. 56, p. 356 f., has shown.

τὴν ἐγκατάληψιν: correctly explained by Grote as subj. of μὴ φθῆναι. This is equiv. to τοῦ τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους μὴ φθῆναι ἐγκαταλαβόντας αὐτούς. In their panic they fell under the feet of their own comrades, running away, that the enemy might not eatch them before they could escape. ἐγκατάληψιν is very expressive: “the holding fast, while still on the spot” (ἐν); Grote translates: “the actual grasp of the Lacedaemonians.”

τοῦ μή: with inf. expressing purpose. See on i. 4. 6, τοῦ τὰς προσόδους μᾶλλον ἰέναι αὐτῷ. GMT. 95, 1; H. 960.

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