He is also
deficient in confidence; but his excessive fear in face of pain is more apparent.
The coward is therefore a despondent person, being
afraid of everything; but the courageous man is just the opposite, for confidence belongs
to a sanguine temperament.
The coward, the rash man, and the courageous man are therefore concerned with the same
objects, but are differently disposed towards them: the two former exceed and fall short,
the last keeps the mean and the right disposition. The rash, moreover, are impetuous, and
though eager before the danger comes they hang back at the critical moment; whereas the
courageous are keen at the time of action but calm beforehand.
As has been said then, Courage is the observance of the mean in relation to things that
inspire confidence or fear, in the circumstances stated1
; and it is confident and endures2
because it is noble
to do so or base not to do so. But to seek death in order to escape from poverty, or the
pangs of love, or from pain or sorrow, is not the act of a courageous man, but rather of a
coward; for it is weakness to fly from troubles, and the suicide does not endure death
because it is noble to do so, but to escape evil.8.
Such is the nature of Courage; but the name is also applied to five divergent types of
（1） First, as most closely resembling true Courage comes the citizen's
Citizen troops appear to
endure dangers because of the legal penalties and the reproach attaching to cowardice, and
the honors awarded to bravery;