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1. [25]

If the liberal man should happen to spend in a manner contrary to what is right and noble, he will feel pain, though in a moderate degree and in the right manner; for it is a mark of virtue to feel both pleasure and pain on the right occasions and in the right manner. 1. [26] Also the liberal man is an easy person to deal with in money matters; 1. [27] he can be cheated, because he does not value money, and is more distressed if he has paid less than he ought than he is annoyed if he has paid more: he does not agree with the saying of Simonides.1 1. [28]

The prodigal on the other hand errs in his feelings with regard to money as well as in his actions; he feels neither pleasure nor pain on the right occasions nor in the right manner. This will become clearer as we proceed.1. [29]

We have said2 then that Prodigality and Meanness are modes of excess and of deficiency, and this in two things, giving and getting—giving being taken to include spending. Prodigality exceeds in giving [without getting3], and is deficient in getting; Meanness falls short in giving and goes to excess in getting, only not on the great scale. 1. [30] Now the two forms of Prodigality are very seldom found united in the same person, because it is not easy to give to everyone without receiving from anyone: the giver's means are soon exhausted, if he is a private citizen, and only such persons are considered prodigal.4 1. [31] In fact, a man who is prodigal in both ways may be thought considerably superior

1 Several parsimonious aphorisms, sincere or ironical, are ascribed to Simonides, but none exactly fits this allusion.

2 See 1.2.

3 These words seem to be interpolated.

4 Cf. 1.23 above.

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