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[147] the volunteer forces in the field has been found to be injudicious to the service, while promotions by seniority and appointments of meritorious privates have produced bravery, and stimulated to faithfulness. In the enlistment of new organizations the plan adopted of granting authority to officers to recruit companies has been found to be the best policy.

I also recommend that the Governor be authorized to form either by the acceptance of volunteers or by draft, in such parts of the State as he may deem expedient, a special corps of militia, to consist in due proportions of cavalry, artillery, and infantry, to be kept up to the full number of fifteen regiments, to be styled Minute Men, who shall be sworn and mustered into the service of the State for three years; who shall assemble for drill at such times and places as he may direct, who shall be clothed, armed, and equipped by the State, and paid when assembled for drill or called into service; and who shall at all times be liable to be called into immediate service for the defence of the State, independently of the remainder of the term enlisted for.

As this force would be subjected to sudden calls, the larger part of it should be organized in the counties adjoining our exposed border, and as the people of those counties have more personal interest in their protection, the recommendation is made to authorize the Governor to designate the parts of the State in which it shall be raised, and save the time and expense of transporting troops from remote parts of the State, and the subsistence and pay in going to and from the border. A body of men so organized will, it is believed, be effective to prevent raids and incursions.

The expenses of clothing, arming and equipping such a force cannot be correctly ascertained, but the Quartermaster-General has been directed to approximate estimates for your information, which will be independent of pay and subsistence.

The State should provide at least six four-gun batteries of field artillery, with all the modern improvements. The suggestion has been frequently made by more reflecting persons that the State should raise a force and keep it permanently in the field for her defense.

Apart from other considerations, it is to be observed that the expense of such a measure would be quite beyond the present ability of the State.

To raise and maintain an army of fifteen regiments (and any smaller force would be inadequate) would involve an annual expenditure of more than fifteen millions of dollars.

The plan which I have above proposed would, I think, give the State efficient protection, and if the Legislature should think fit to adopt it, the expense can be readily provided for by loan or otherwise.

Having an organized force under the control of the authorities of the State, and mustered into service for domestic protection, we would not, as heretofore, lose time in arranging for transportation and supplies with the National Government when it becomes necessary to call it into the field.

When thoroughly organized, it should be in all its appointments an army which could be increased from our enrollment of classified citizens.

The plan which I have above suggested is the result of the reflection and experience which I have had during the last three years, and I have felt it to be my duty to submit it for your consideration, for the purpose of providing for the effectual defence of the State.

If the Legislature should prefer the adoption of any other plan, more efficient and economical than that which I have herein proposed, it will give me pleasure to co-operate heartily in carrying it into effect.

In accordance with the act of March 4, 1864, I have appointed for the Eastern armies, Colonel F. Jordan as agent at Washington, and Lieutenant-Colonel James Gilliam as Assistant Agent at that place; and also for the Southwestern armies, Lieutenant-Colonel James Chamberlain as Agent at Nashville.

These agents are now actively engaged in the performance of their duties, and it is desirable that our people should be aware that a part of them consist in the gratuitous collection of all claims by Pennsylvania volunteers, or their legal representatives, on the State and National Governments.

Volunteers having claims on either of these Governments can have them collected through these agents without expense, and thus be secured from the extortions to which it is feared they have sometimes heretofore been subjected.

Having received information from the agents of the State that our sick and wounded were suffering greatly for the want of comforts and even necessaries, I have been recently compelled to call on the people to contribute supplies mainly in kind, for their relief; and it gives me pleasure to say that this appeal has been cheerfully responded to, as have been all my former appeals to the same end.

It seems impossible to exhaust the liberality of our generous people, when the well-being of our brave volunteers is in question.

In my special message of the thirtieth of April I stated the circumstances attending the advance, by banks and other corporations, of funds for the payment of the militia called out in 1863.

In consequence, the Legislature passed the act of May 4, 1864, authorizing a loan for the purpose of refunding, with interest, the amount thus advanced, in case that Congress should fail to make the necessary appropriation at its then current session.

I regret to say that Congress adjourned without making such appropriation. The balance in the Treasury being found sufficient to reimburse the funds so advanced without unduly diminishing the sinking fund, I have deemed it

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