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[544] fort. Whenever the shot struck the lighter brickwork it did considerable damage, and disabled a twenty-four pounder in the gorge, by loosening the pintle through the masonry. During the night the Twenty-first South Carolina volunteers relieved Colonel Olmstead's command on Morris Island. The artillery commands and couriers were also relieved by detachments from their respective regiments and battalions, and about twelve o'clock Battery Wagner opened on the enemy, keeping up a continuous fire during the night. Fort Sumter and Battery Simkins also kept up their practice.

On the morning of the seventeenth the enemy opened with three two-hundred-pound Parrott guns and one one-hundred-pounder on Fort Summer, at distances varying from two and a quarter to three miles. This fire was kept up, with but little intermission, throughout the morning. At twenty-five minutes past nine the Ironsides and six monitors came into action against Fort Sumter, Batteries Wagner and Gregg, directing their shots principally at Sumter. At a quarter before eleven they came within about three thousand yards of Fort Sumter, when Colonel Rhett opened his batteries. Colonel Butler, from Fort Moultrie, had opened a few guns, but a large force of negroes being at work on his front, he was directed to discontinue his fire. The Ironsides and the monitors were struck repeatedly, and at ten minutes before one o'clock the rapid firing ceased, the fleet withdrawing from the contest. One of the monitors, during the action, left the squadron and steamed rapidly down the channel to the wooden fleet of the enemy, and soon after all their flags were observed to be flying at half-mast. Six hundred and twelve shots and shell had been fired at Fort Sumter of which most struck. The casualties in the fort were one man killed; Lieutenant John Middleton, Lieutenant Julius Rhett, Lieutenant Johnson, engineer, and ten privates slightly wounded. The fort was seriously injured on the north-west face; one nine-inch Dahlgren gun, three forty-two-pounders and one eight-inch columbiad disabled. During the afternoon the land batteries re-opened their fire heavily upon the fort, cutting deeply into the gorge wall and adding much to the damage of the north-western face, and disabling a ten-inch columbiad. By night the enemy had thrown nine hundred and forty-eight shot, of which four hundred and forty-five struck outside; two hundred and severity passed over. Battery Wagner, which received its full share of the enemy's fire, was but little damaged; but sustained a serious loss in the death of Captain Wampler, of the engineers, a gallant and accomplished officer, who was killed by a shell from the enemy's fleet while faithfully performing his arduous duties. Battery Cheves was opened on the morning of the seventeenth, at nine o'clock, with four eight-inch columbiads and four eight-inch navy guns on ship carriages. The fire was kept up throughout the day with the columbiads at the enemy's works on Morris Island, and working parties in the marsh, having the effect of annoying the former and dispersing the latter. The four eight-inch navy carriages were found to be inadequate to stand the elevation and range, and dismounted their guns after about an hour. They were directed to be re-mounted on columbiad carriages and repaired for service as speedily as possible. Battery Haskell also opened on the enemy's working parties between Morris and Black Islands.

During the night of the seventeenth, the enemy remained comparatively quiet. The troops on Morris Island were resupplied, and a large quantity of ammunition and stores were removed from Fort Sumter to Sullivan's Island.

Early on the morning of the eighteenth, the Ironsides, two monitors, and the enemy's land batteries opened upon Fort Sumter and Battery Wagner. The battery and forts replied slowly. Batteries Simkins and Cheves also opened upon the enemy, annoying them to a considerable extent; but on account of the miserable quality of our fuses, only by the striking of the shells, but few burst.

Before two o'clock, the Ironsides and monitors retired, the land batteries alone keeping up the cannonade, with the effect of causing the wall on the north-west face of Sumter to project and cutting well away into the gorge. During the afternoon the Ironsides and five monitors took up position in line, and with the land batteries kept up heavy fire, taking the north-west face in reverse, disabling the remaining guns, and two ten-inch columbiads on the north-east face; two guns on the west face remaining were also disabled, besides the seven-inch Brooke gun in the south-west angle.

The enemy ceased his fire about seven o'clock P. M., having thrown eight hundred and seventy-six shot and shell, of which four hundred and fifty-two struck outside, two hundred and forty-four inside, and one hundred and eighty went over. One man was seriously, and two slightly wounded.

At Battery Wagner a rifled gun and ten-inch columbiad were disabled, but the damage to the works otherwise was not serious. One monitor of the enemy was observed undergoing repairs during the night.

The enemy's land batteries commenced firing at half-past 4 o'clock in the morning, principally on Fort Sumter, but firing from mortars and small guns on Battery Wagner.

By ten o'clock the cannonade on Sumter had become more serious than hitherto, damaging the walls seriously, killing one and wounding four. All the gorge guns had been rendered useless, and the first shot passed through the gorge walls, just under the crown of an arch west of the main gateway. The fire continued steadily during the afternoon, with its usual effect. The western quarters of Fort Sumter having been demolished, the walls were torn down by the garrison. One ten-inch mortar


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