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[689] estimates, at between two thousand five hundred and three thousand, which he thinks very small.

On the first of July Major-General Smith's division was ordered to support the cavalry on our left. Their effective total was about one thousand five hundred. On the second, the enemy's right being nearer to Atlanta by several miles than our left, the army fell back during the night to Smyrna Church. On the fourth, Major-General Smith reported that he should be compelled to withdraw on the morning of the fifth to the line of intrenchments covering the railroad bridge and Turner's Ferry. The army was therefore ordered to retire at the same time to that line to secure our bridges. The cavalry crossed the Chattahoochee, Wheeler observing it for some twenty miles above, and Jackson as far below. The enemy advanced as usual, covered by intrenchments. Skirmishing continued until the ninth. Our infantry and artillery were brought to the south-east side of the river that night, because two Federal corps had crossed it above Powers' Ferry on the eighth, and intrenched. Lieutenant-General Stewart took command of his corps on the seventh.

The character of Peachtree Creek, and the numerous fords in the Chattahoochee above its mouth, prevented my attempting to defend that part of the river. The broad and muddy channel of the creek would have separated the two parts of the army. It, and the river below its mouth, were therefore taken as our line. A position on the high ground south of the creek was selected for the army, from which to attack the enemy while crossing. The engineer officers, with a large force of negroes, were set to work to strengthen the fortifications of Atlanta, and mount on them seven heavy rifles borrowed from Major-General Maury. The Chief-Engineer was instructed to devote his attention, first, to the works between the Marietta and Decatur roads; to put them in such condition that they might be held by State troops, so that the army might attack the enemy in flank when he approached the town: this in the event that we should be unsuccessful in attacking the Federal army in its passage of Peachtree Creek.

After the armies were separated by the Chattahoochee, skirmishing became less severe. On the fourteenth a division of Federal cavalry crossed the river by Moore's Bridge, near Newnan, but was driven back by Armstrong's brigade, sent by Brigadier-General Jackson to meet it. On the fifteenth Governor Brown informed me orally that he hoped to reinforce the army before the end of the month with near ten thousand State troops.

On the seventeenth the main body of the Federal army crossed the Chattahoochee between Roswell and Powers' Ferry. At ten o'clock P. M., while I was giving Lieutenant-Colonel Prestman, Chief Engineer, instructions in regard to his work of the next day on the fortifications of Atlanta, a telegram was received from General Cooper, informing me, by direction of the Secretary of War, that, as I had failed to arrest the advance of the enemy to the vicinity of Atlanta, and expressed no confidence that I could defeat or repel him, I was relieved from the command of the Army and Department of Tennessee, which would be immediately turned over to General Hood. This was done at once. On the morning of the eighteenth the enemy was reported to be advancing, and at General Hood's request I continued to give orders until afternoon, placing the troops in the position selected near Peachtree Creek.

In transferring the command to General Hood, I explained my plans to him: First: to attack the Federal army while crossing Peachtree Creek. If we were successful, great results might be hoped for, as the enemy would have both the creek and the river to intercept his retreat. Second: if unsuccessful, to keep back the enemy by intrenching, to give time for the assembling of the State troops promised by Governor Brown, to garrison Atlanta with those troops, and when the Federal army approached the town, attack it on its most exposed flank with all the Confederate troops.

These troops, who had been for seventy-four days in the immediate presence of the enemy, laboring and fighting daily, enduring toil, exposure, and danger with equal cheerfulness, more confident and high-spirited than when the Federal army presented itself near Dalton, were then inferior to none who ever served the Confederacy.

Under the excellent administration of Brigadier-General Mackall, Chief of Staff, the troops were well equipped, and abundantly supplied. The draught animals of the artillery and Quartermaster's Department were in better condition on the eighteenth of July than on the fifth of May. We lost no material in the retreat, except the four field-pieces mentioned in the accompanying report of General Hood.

I commenced the campaign with General Bragg's Army of Missionary Ridge, with one brigade added (Mercer's), and two taken away (Baldwin's and Quarles'). That opposed to us was Grant's army of Missionary Ridge, then estimated at eighty thousand by our principal officers, increased, as I have stated, by two corps, a division, and several thousand recruits — in all, at least thirty thousand men. The cavalry of that army was estimated by Major-General Wheeler at fifteen thousand.

The reinforcements which joined our army amounted to fifteen thousand infantry and artillery, and four thousand cavalry. Our scouts reported much greater numbers joining the United States army--garrisons and bridge-guards from Tennessee and Kentucky, relieved by “one-hundred days men,” and the Seventeenth corps with two thousand cavalry.

The loss of our infantry and artillery from the fifth of May had been about ten thousand in killed and wounded, and four thousand seven hundred from all other causes — mainly slight

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