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[667] sickness, as their clothing and feet were always wet. The most of their clothing and blankets, besides, were lost by the fire hereinafter mentioned. Fort St. Philip, from the same causes, was in a similar condition, but to a lesser extent.

No attention having been previously paid to the repeated requisitions for guns of heavy calibre for these forts, it became necessary, in their present condition, to bring in and mount, and to build the platforms for the three ten-inch and three eight-inch columbiads, the rifled forty-two pounder, and the five ten-inch seacoast mortars, recently obtained from Pensacola on the evacuation of that place, together with the two rifled seven-inch guns, temporarily borrowed from the naval authorities in New Orleans. It was also found necessary to prepare the old water battery to the rear of and below Fort Jackson, which had never been completed, for the reception of a portion of these guns, as well as to construct mortar-proof magazines and shell rooms within the same.

In consequence, also, of the character of the expected attack by heavy mortars, it was deemed advisable to cover all the main magazines at both forts with sand-bags to a considerable depth, to protect them against a vertical fire.

After great exertions, cheerfully made by both officers and men, and by working the garrisons by reliefs night and day, this work was all accomplished by the thirteenth of April. No sooner had the two rifled seven-inch navy guns been placed in position, however, than orders arrived to dismount one of them immediately, and to send the same to the city at once, to be placed on board of the iron-clad steamer Louisiana. I strongly remonstrated against this removal, by telegraph, but was informed in reply that the orders were imperative, and that the gun must be sent without fail. It was accordingly sent, but with great difficulty, owing to the overflow and the other causes stated. The garrisons of both forts were greatly fatigued and worn out by these labors, performed as they were under pressure, and within sight of the enemy, and owing to the many discomforts and disadvantages we were laboring under, in consequence of high water. In the meantime I had called upon the General commanding the department, for two regiments, to be stationed at the quarantine buildings, six miles above the forts, to act as a reserve force, and to co-operate with the forts, in case of a combined land and water attack. I also asked for Captain W. G. Mullen's company of scouts and sharpshooters, to be stationed in the woods below Fort Jackson, on the right bank of the river, for the purpose of picking off the officers and men from the enemy's vessels, when assuming their several positions of attack. Captain Mullen's company, of about one hundred and twenty-five men, was sent down as requested, and stationed in part in the point of woods below Fort Jackson, and the remainder on the Fort St. Philip side, opposite the raft obstructing the river. The Chalmette regiment, consisting of about five hundred men, Colonel Sysmauskie commanding, was sent to the quarantine. A part of it was stationed there, and company detachments were placed at the head of the several canals leading from the river into the back bays of the same, to guard against a land force being thrown in launches above us.

Four steamers of the river fleet, protected, and to a certain extent made shot-proof with cotton bulk-heads, and prepared with iron prows to act as rams, viz., the Warrior, Stonewall Jackson, Defiance, and Resolute, commanded by Captains Stephenson, Philips, McCoy, and Hooper, respectively, were sent down to report to and co-operate with me. The steamers Governor Moore and General Quitman, prepared as those before mentioned, and commanded by Captains B. Kennon and A. Grant, were sent down in like manner to co-operate with the forts, and ram such vessels of the enemy as might succeed in passing. The naval authorities also sent down the C. S. steam ram Manassa, Captain Warly, C. S. navy, commanding. She was stationed a short distance above Fort Jackson, with her steam up constantly, to act against the enemy as occasion might offer. Subsequently, also, Captain F. B. Renshaw, C. S. navy, arrived in command of the C. S. steamer Jackson. The raft of logs and chains, which had formerly been placed across the river, having proven a failure, upon the rise in the stream and the constant velocity of the drift-bearing current, a new obstruction had been placed across the river, opposite Fort Jackson, by Lieutenant-Colonel E. Higgins, prior to his assumption of the command of the forts. This consisted of a line of schooners anchored at intervals, with bows up stream, and thoroughly chained together amidships, as well as stern and stem. The rigging, ratlines, and cable, were left to trail astern of these schooners, as an additional impediment, to tangle in the propeller wheels of the enemy. This schooner raft was seriously damaged by the wind storm on the tenth and eleventh of April, which parted the chains, scattered the schooners, and materially affected its character and effectiveness as an obstruction.

In addition to the wind, the raft was also much damaged by allowing some of the fire-barges to get loose and drift against it, through the carelessness of those having them in charge. A large number of these fire-barges were tied to the banks above both forts, ready at all times to be towed into the current, and against the enemy, for the double purpose of firing his ships, and to light up the river by night to insure the accuracy of our fire. My instructions to the river fleet, under Captain Stephenson (see attached document A), were to be in the stream above the raft, with such boats as had stern guns, in order to assist the forts with their fire, in case the enemy should attempt the passage, as well as to turn in and ram at all hazards, all such vessels as might succeed in

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