Primis was restored by Heins. for ‘primus,’ which is the first reading of one of Ribbeck's cursives. ‘Effugit’ and ‘elabitur’ both give the notion of escape from the mêlée of competitors. So Il. 23. 376, ἔκφερον ἵπποι. ‘Turbam inter fremitumque’ is rightly understood by Wagn. of the hurry and noise of those whom Gyas is leaving behind.
 Locum superare priorem seems to be a mixture of two notions, overcoming each other, and overcoming the difficulty of gaining the better place. In Greek τὰ πρότερα νικᾶν would be explained as a cognate accusative; but such constructions are much rarer in Latin.
 Habet was restored by Heins. from Med. and others for ‘abit,’ the old reading (found in one of Ribbeck's cursives), which might stand as in v. 318 in the sense of ‘effugit,’ v. 151, though perhaps it would apply better to one competitor outstripping the rest than to one of two getting ahead of the other. ‘Habet,’ “locum priorem.”
 “Et longa sulcat maria alta carina” 10. 197. Here the reading before Heins. was ‘longe’ or ‘longae—carinae.’ The reading in the text is well explained by Henry. “The simple idea, stripped of its ornament, is that of the two vessels moving on, abreast in front, and side by side in their length . . . . . but Virg. for the sake of variety and according to his usual custom . . . . alters the latter clause, and instead of saying ‘with bows abreast and hulls side by side,’ says ‘with bows abreast, and furrow the salt waters with their long keels.’ Thus used, the epithet ‘longa’ is not only not ‘otiosum’” (Heyne) “but in the highest degree useful and ornamental: (a) because it serves to place before the mind not only the length of the vessels, with their consequent size and stateliness, but their parallel position with respect to their length (which latter sense appears more evidently on our supplying ‘una’ from the preceding clause, as suggested by Wagn.), and (b) because it thus prepares for the succeeding account (v. 186) of the one vessel passing the other, not of the whole, but only by part of its length, ‘nec tota tamen illa prior praeeunte carina.’”
[159-182] ‘Gyas was just half-way when he complained of his pilot for steering too far out. The pilot refusing to steer to the shore, Cloanthus passes him. Gyas throws the pilot overboard and steers himself. The pilot swims ashore amid the laughter of the bystanders.’
 Scopulo, the place where they were to turn, v. 124.
 Medio is not explained by the commentators; but it seems to mean ‘halfway,’ ‘medio in gurgite’ being = ‘media in via per gurgitem.’ Perhaps we may be meant to connect ‘medio in gurgite victor,’ the conqueror of the half-way.
 Heins. restored ‘gressum’ for ‘cursum.’ ‘Cursum’ is a later correction in Med., supported by two of Ribbeck's cursives and the MSS. of Sen. De Ben. 6. 7. ‘Gressum’ has the advantage of being the more difficult reading, involving a bold and perhaps a harsh metaphor, as Gell. 10. 26 tells us that Asinius Pollio censured the use of ‘transgressus’ as applied to navigation in Sallust. On the other hand ‘dirige gressum’ occurs elsewhere in Virg., 1. 401., 11. 855, the last a compound of the present line, and v. 166 below, while ‘dirige cursum’ occurs nowhere else, so that a transcriber may very well have slipped into the expression with which he was more familiar. With Wagn. and Ribbeck I have, after considerable hesitation, allowed ‘gressum’ to stand. Ribbeck reads ‘derige’ from Rom., Pal., &c.
 Litus ama, as we talk of ‘hugging the shore.’ Forb. comp. “amat Ianua limen” Hor. 1 Od. 25. 3. ‘Litus’ here is the rock, which Gyas wished to pass as closely as possible, as Antilochus is advised to pass the goal by Nestor, Il. 23. 338 foll. From ‘dexter’ and ‘laevas’ it appears that they were to pass the goal on the left. ‘Stringat’ gives briefly what Hom. l. c. expresses more fully, ἐγχριμφθήτω Ὡς ἄν τοι πλήμνη γε δοάσσεται ἄκρον ἱκέσθαι Κύκλου ποιητοῖο. Possibly the diminutive ‘palmula,’ may be intended further to express the delicacy of the operation. Med., Pal., and Gud. a m. p. have ‘laeva,’ which might be defended metrically, but would only produce a less Virgilian combination (see above on v. 151), while the omission of s is easily accounted for by the beginning of the next word. See on G. 2. 219. Germ. comp. Prop. 4. 3. 23, “Alter remus aquas, alter tibi radat arenas; Tutus eris; medio maxuma turba mari est.”
 Alii, others, who have not the command of the way.
 Revocabat: “a cursu quem ingressus erat” Wagn. rightly. It might possibly be explained ‘rursus vocabat;’ but this would be less likely. Rom. and a few others omit ‘et,’ a mistake which some of the early editors and Ladewig among the moderns follow deliberately. See on v. 480.
 Cloanthus gets between Gyas and the rock, as Antilochus passes Menelaus in the narrow part of the road, Il. 23. 416 foll.
 “‘Radit iter:’ radit mare remis, ut alibi.” Heyne. Rather, “facit viam radendo litora.” Comp. 3. 700., 7. 10, and the passage from Prop. quoted on v. 163. “Radit iter liquidum” below, v. 217, which Forb. compares, contains a different image. ‘Subitusque,’ a former reading, seems to have no MSS. authority.
 Menelaus is angry at being passed by Antilochus, Il. l. c., but the tears are borrowed from Diomed, ib. 385, when Apollo takes away his whip just as he is trying to pass Eumelus. ‘Ossibus’ is taken by Forb. as a second dative, epexegetic of ‘iuveni:’ but it seems simpler to regard it as an abl., as it doubtless is in 9. 66, “duris dolor ossibus ardet,” which he quotes.
 The contracted form ‘socium’ is found in prose, Livy 22. 27 &c.
 ‘Clavus’ usually means the tiller (“fustis gubernaculi” Serv.): here however we must either give it the sense of the rudder, or suppose that Virg. expresses himself loosely, meaning merely that Gyas turns the tiller so as to bring the ship towards the rock.
Gravis, partly with age, partly
with his soaked dress, as the next line
explains. Forb. comp. 6. 359, “madida
cum veste gravatum.” The description,
down to v. 182, is modelled on Od. 5. 319
“τόνδ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὑπόβρυχα θῆκε πολὺν χρόνον.
* * * * * * *
εἵματα γάρ ῤ̔ ἐβάρυνε, τά οἱ πόρε δῖα Καλυψώ.
ὀψὲ δὲ δή ῤ̔ ἀνέδυ, στόματος δ᾽ ἐξέπτυσεν ἅλμην
πικρὴν, ἥ οἱ πολλὴ ἀπὸ κρατὸς κελάρυζεν.
 Rident refers to the time mentioned in v. 180. Menoetes is drying himself on the rock: the Trojans had laughed when they saw him falling, laughed when they saw him rising and swimming: and now they laugh when they see him disgorging the water. ‘Risere’ of course is not put for ‘riserant,’ which would make a sharper contrast with ‘rident’ and bring the latter out into greater prominence than Virg. intends. ‘Pectore’ here stands for the stomach. Virg. was thinking of Il. 23. 781 foll., where the lesser Ajax stands ὄνθον ἀποπτύων . . . . . οἱ δ᾽ ἄρα πάντες ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ἡδὺ γέλασσαν.
[183-200] ‘Sergestus and Mnestheus conceive the hope of overtaking Gyas. Mnestheus encourages his men, reminding them of what they have done under former difficulties, and urging them at all events not to be last.’