.--Although this State joined the Southern Confederacy, it furnished thirty regiments to the Union Army
, organized from refugees and volunteers who enlisted without the inducement of bounty, many of whom had to run the gauntlet of Confederate videttes, or avoid them by crossing the cold and desolate peaks of the Cumberland
The total number of Union soldiers from Tennessee
was 31,092, not including blacks.
Averaged on the basis of a three years enlistment, they were equal to 26,394 men. The regiments were small, and were maintained with difficulty at an effective strength.
In addition to these 31,092 enlistments, 20,133 colored soldiers were recruited in this State.
Of the 31,092 white troops, 6,777 lost their lives while in the service.
A part, only, of the Tennessee Union
regiments are given in the above list, the ones selected being those which were most prominent by reason of their losses in action or otherwise.
Of the deaths from disease in the 2d Tennessee Infantry, 382 occurred in Confederate prisons.
The 7th Cavalry lost 193 from the same cause.
The 2d Cavalry lost 260 men killed in the explosion of the steamer Sultana
, near Memphis
.--The Regular Army, prior to the war, contained nineteen regiments in all: five cavalry regiments (two of dragoons, two of cavalry, and one of mounted rifles), four artillery, and ten infantry.
By authority of the President
's proclamation of May 3, 1861--approved by Congress July 21st--an addition was made of one cavalry, one artillery, and nine infantry regiments.
It was further ordered that the nine new infantry regiments should contain two, but not more than three, battalions of eight companies each.
This contemplated strength, however, was not attained.
Some of them succeeded in organizing two battalions, but all the infantry regiments are now ten-company commands.
The old regiments were small (maximum of ten companies), and all the regiments became so depleted by losses and lack of recruits, that, in 1863, they only numbered from two to eight companies each.
Any comparison of their losses with those of volunteer commands should be accompanied by a statement of effective strength.
At Stone's River
, the “Regular Brigade,” of Rousseau
's Division, Fourteenth Corps, made a brilliant record, and earned a reputation as a most efficient and reliable command.
The brigade was composed of the 15th, 16th, 18th, and 19th Infantry, and Battery H of the 5th Artillery.
The 18th Infantry had two battalions; the others, one each.
The brigade took 1,566 officers and men into action, and sustained a loss of 94 killed, 489 wounded,1
and 47 missing; total, 630.
The 16th Infantry lost 166 out of 308 engaged, or over 53 per cent.
the two Regular brigades of Ayres
's Division included ten regiments, but they contained, in all, only fifty-seven small companies.
Out of 1,985 present in action, they lost 829 in killed, wounded and missing; and, in Burbank
's Brigade, out of 80 officers present, 40 were killed or wounded.
Heavy losses were also sustained at Gaines's Mill
by the 2d, 12th, and 14th Infantry; at Manassas
, by the 14th; and at Spotsylvania
, by the 11th.
The 9th Infantry was stationed on the Pacific Coast
during the entire war. The 5th Infantry served in New Mexico
A part of the 8th Infantry was present at Cedar Mountain
, where it fought in Augur
's Division, Banks
's Corps; and some of the companies served as a provost-guard at General McClellan
The principal loss of the 3d Cavalry occurred at Valverde
, N. M., and at Cherokee Station
.--There were 166 regiments of colored troops organized during the war. Their total losses in battle amounted to 2,751 men killed or mortally wounded, not including the deaths among the officers, who were whites.
The colored regiments in the above list were the ones which sustained the heaviest losses in battle, and together with the 54th Massachusetts, 55th Massachusetts, and 29th Connecticut, represent over three-fourths of the entire loss in action of this class of troops.
The regiments of Ferrero
's Division sustained almost all their losses at the Mine Explosion
and in the trenches before Petersburg
This division was also engaged at the Boydton Road
, but with slight loss.
The casualties in Paine
's (formerly Hinks
's) Division occurred in the first assault on Petersburg
, June 15, 1864, at Chaffin's Farm, and at the Darbytown Road
, 1864). The principal loss in Hawley
's Division occurred at Deep Bottom
, and Chaffin's Farm (Fort Gilmer