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[68] a division commander of the Fourth Corps, was appointed to his place. General Hancock succeeded to the command of Richardson's (1st) Division, and General Howard took Sedgwick's place, the latter being absent on account of wounds. The loss of the corps at Fredrichsburg exceeded that of any other in that battle, amounting to 412 killed, 3,214 wounded, and 488 missing, one-half of which fell on Hancock's Division in the unsuccessful assault on Marye's Heights. The percentage of loss in Hancock's Division was large, Caldwells (1st) Brigade losing 46 per cent. killed and wounded.

After Fredericksburg, the Grand Divisions were discontinued, and General Sumner retiring on account of age and physical disabilities, General Couch remained in command. Couch led the corps at Chancellorsville, with Hancock, Gibbon, and French as his division commanders. Sedgwick had been promoted to the command of the Sixth Corps, and Howard, who had commanded Sedgwick's Division at Fredericksburg, was promoted to the command of the Eleventh Corps. At Chancellorsville the principal part of the Second Corps' fighting fell on Hancock's Division, its skirmish line, under Colonel Nelson A. Miles, distinguishing itself by a successful resistance to a strong attack of the enemy, making, one of the most interesting episodes in the history of that battle. During the fighting at Chancellorsville, Gibbon's (2d) Division remained at Fredericksburg, where it supported Sedgwick's operations, but with slight loss.

Not long after Chancellorsville, General Couch was relieved at his own request, Hancock succeeding to the command of the corps, and Caldwell to that of Hancock's Division. While on the march to Gettysburg, General Alex. Hays' Brigade joined, and was assigned to the Third Division, Hays taking command of the division. At Gettysburg, the corps was hotly engaged in the battles of the second and third days, encountering there the hardest fighting in its experience, and winning there its grandest laurels; on tlhe second day, in the fighting at the wheat-field, and on the third, in the repulse of Pickett's charge, which was directed against Hancock's position. The fighting was deadly in the extreme, the percentage of loss in the First Minnesota, Gibbon's Division, being without an equal in the records of modern warfare. The loss in the corps was 796 killed, 3,186 wounded and 368 missing; a total of 4,350 out of less than 10,5001 engaged. Gibbon's Division suffered the most, the percentage of loss in Harrow's (1st) Brigade being unusually severe. Hancock and Gibbon were seriously wounded, while of the brigade commanders, Zook, Cross, Willard and Sherrill were killed. The monthly return of the corps, June 30, 1863, shows an aggregate of 22,336 borne on the rolls, but shows only 13,056 “present for duty.” From the latter deduct the usual proportion of non-combatants,--the musicians, teamsters, cooks, servants and stragglers, and it becomes doubtful if the corps had over 10,000 muskets in line at Gettysburg.

General Hancock's wounds necessitated an absence of severa. months. General William Hays was placed in command of the corps immediately after the battle of Gettysburg, retaining the command until August 12th, when he was relieved by General Gouverneur K. Warren, who was ordered to take Hancock's place during the latter's absence. Warren had distinguished himself at Gettysburg by his quick comprehension of the critical situation at Little Round Top, and by the energetic promptness with which he remedied the difficulty. He had also made a brilliant reputation in the Fifth Corps, and as the chief topographical officer of the Army of the Potomac. He was, subsequently, in command at Bristoe Station, a Second Corps affair, and one which was noticeable for the dash with which officers and men fought, together with the superior ability displayed by Warren himself. He also commanded at Mine Run and Morton's Ford, the divisions at that time being under Generals Caldwell, Webb and Alex. Hays.

Upon the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac, March 23, 1864 the Third Corps

1 12,363 infantry, 82 cavalry and 551 artillery “present for duty, equipped.”

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