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[532] service the average rate was 6 per cent. In the Kansas troops the desertions exceeded 11 per cent. of the enrollment, the percentage being the highest of any State.

Table D. Number of White troops, sailors, Colored troops, and Indians furnished by the States.

States, Territories, etc. White Troops. Sailors and Marines. Colored Troops. Indian Nations. Aggregate. 1Total Deaths, all causes.
  I. II. III. IV. V. VI.
Alabama 2,576       2,576 345
Arkansas 8,289       8,289 1,713
California 15,725       15,725 573
Colorado 4,903       4,903 323
Connecticut 51,937 2,163 1,764   55,864 5,354
Dakota 206       206 6
Delaware 11,236 94 954   12,284 882
District of Columbia 11,912 1,353 3,269   16,534 290
Florida 1,290       1,290 215
Georgia           15
Illinois 255,057 2,224 1,811   259,092 34,834
Indiana 193,748 1,078 1,537   196,363 26,672
Iowa 75,797 5 440   76,242 13,001
Kansas 18,069   2,080   20,149 2,630
Kentucky 51,743 314 23,703   75,760 10,774
Louisiana 5,224       5,224 945
Maine 64,973 5,030 104   70,107 9,398
Maryland 33,995 3,925 8,718   46,638 2,982
Massachusetts 122,781 19,983 3,966   146,730 13,942
Michigan 85,479 498 1,387   87,364 14,753
Minnesota 23,913 3 104   24,020 2,584
Mississippi 545       545 78
Missouri 100,616 151 8,344   109,111 13,885
Nebraska 3,157       3,157 239
Nevada 1,080       1,080 33
New Hampshire 32,930 882 125   33,937 4,882
New Jersey 67,500 8,129 1,185   76,814 5,754
New Mexico 6,561       6,561 277
New York 409,561 35,164 4,125   448,850 46,534
North Carolina 3,156       3,156 360
Ohio 304,814 3,274 5,092   313,180 35,475
Oregon 1,810       1,810 45
Pennsylvania 315,017 14,307 8,612   337,936 33,183
Rhode Island 19,521 1,878 1,837   23,236 1,321
Tennessee 31,092       31,092 6,777
Texas 1,965       1,965 141
Vermont 32,549 619 120   33,288 5,224
Virginia           42
Washington Territory 964       964 22
West Virginia 31,872   196   32,068 4,017
Wisconsin 91,029 133 165   91,327 12,301
Indian Nations       3,530 3,530 1,018
Colored Troops     99,3372   99,337 336,847
Veteran Reserve Corps           1,672
U. S. Vet. Vols. (Hancock's Corps)           106
U. S. Sharpshooters and Engineers           552
U. S. Volunteer Infantry           243
Generals and Staffs (Vols.)           239
Miscellaneous, Brigade Bands, &c.           232
Regular Army           5,798
Totals 2,494,592 101,2074 178,975 3,530 2,778,304 359,528

In addition to the deserters, there were thousands of other absentees. In March, 1863, the returns of the Army of the Potomac showed that 2,922 officers and 81,964 enlisted men were absent, the majority of whom were absent without any known cause; and in December, 1862, a return of the Army of the Cumberland showed that with 76,725 present there were 46,677 absent.

Desertions were frequent among the drafted men, for their service was compulsory; but there were not many of this class in the ranks. The Union Army was essentially a volunteer army. True, a conscription act was enforced; but its provisions for exemption were so lenient that the number of drafted men actually held to service was only 52,068, a small number as compared with the total enlistment. In addition to the drafted men held to service. there were 75,429 conscripts who sent substitutes. These substitutes have generally been classed as mercenaries; but they were men who went to the war without compulsion, and if they received money for the act it should be remembered that all the volunteers who enlisted during the latter part of the var received large bounties.

Besides the substitutes just mentioned, there were 42,581 men who enlisted as substitutes for men who, although not drafted, were enrolled under the Conscription Act and were liable to future drafts, but who secured exemption therefrom by sending men to the field in

1 Includes deaths in the army only; the deaths in the navy — among sailors and marines — are not included in any of these tables. The deaths credited here to each State occurred in the white troops; the total of deaths among the colored soldiers is stated opposite the item “Colored troops.”

2 Colored troops recruited in the Southern States.

3 Includes all the deaths in the 178,975 Colored Troops.

4 There were 31,347 more who were not credited to the states, as sailors.

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