[24] In those battles the Union Armies lost possession of the field, and consequently a large number of the killed are included with the missing — so large a number that any ratio based on the casualties of these battles would be misleading.

In the German army, during the Franco-Prussian war, the proportion of wounded to the killed was 5.4, and the proportion of wounded to the killed and mortally wounded was 3.02.1

Mr. Kirkley, the statistician of the War Department, states the deaths from battles curing the Civil War at 110,070, of which 67,508 are classified as killed in action, and 43,012 as having died of wounds. From this it appears that, on the average, the mortally wounded are equal to 64 per cent. of the killed.2 Hence, the proportion of wounded to killed may be expressed by the following formulas, the first showing the proportion where the mortally wounded are included with the wounded, and the second where they are included with the killed.

 Killed. Wounded. Killed. Wounded. （a) 100 + 480 = 580 or as 1 : 4.8 （b) 164 + 416 = 580 or as 1 : 2.5

The first represents the common form used in stating the casualties at the close of an action; the second represents the same loss, after the number of those who died of wounds has been ascertained from the muster-out rolls, and added to the killed outright. The first is the common one used in all military reports and histories.

In the Surgeon-General's Report of the War, it appears that out of 235,585 cases of gunshot wounds treated in the hospitals, 33,653 died of their injuries — a ratio of 14 per cent., and one which agrees closely with the conditions expressed in the preceding formulas.3

From the second formula it may be deduced, that if 110,070 were killed or mortally wounded in the war, the total of casualties may be further stated as:--

 Killed and Died of Wounds (official) 110,070 Wounded, not mortally 275,175 Total of killed and wounded 385,245

If these formulas are correct they are of value, as there is no other way of arriving at the total number of killed and wounded in the war. There were so many minor engagements for which no official returns of casualties were made, that any summary of the casualties by battles would fall far short of the correct amount.

The number of wounded treated at the hospitals during the war was 246,712, which, according to the Surgeon-General's estimate, embraced nine-tenths of all the wounded. Of these hospital cases, only 922 were wounded by sabres or bayonets, and a large proportion of these originated in private quarrels, or were inflicted by camp-guards in the discharge of their duty.

This ratio of 4.8, though true in the aggregate, varies greatly in particular instances; though generally correct as to the loss of an army in battle, it will not always hold good for a particular regiment. Still, the same regiment which in some one engagement may show a

1 The loss in the German army was 17,572 killed, 96.187 wounded, and 14,138 missing; total, 127,897. With the killed are include 6,210 who were mortally wounded, but died within 24 hours. The deaths from wounds prior to May 1, 1871, increased the number of killed to 28,277. The missing were subsequently accounted for, with the exception of 4,009. The total deaths in the German army — in the field — during the war were 28,277 killed, died of disease or other causes, 12,466; total, 40,743. Total strength of the armies, 887,876. Percentage of killed, 3.1; percentage of deaths from all other causes, 1.4.--(Dr. Engel, Director des koniglich preussischen statistischen Bureaus.)

2 In the Greman Army — Franco-Prussian War — there were 17,572 killed, and 10,707 who died of their wounds, the mortally wounded being equal to 61 per cent, of the killed.

3 In the Crimean War, 13.7 of the wounded died of their wounds.--(Wm. Barwick Hodge, Journal of the London statistical Society.)

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