Doc. 2.-battle of Fredericksburg.
Report of Lieut.-General Longstreet.
headquarters First army corps, A. N. V., near Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 20, 1862.General: Upon my arrival at Fredericksburg, on the nineteenth of November, the troops of this command were assigned to positions as follows, viz.: McLaws's division upon the heights immediately behind the city and south of the Telegraph road; Anderson's division on McLaws's left, and occupying the heights as far as Taylor's hill on the Rappahannock; Pickett's division on McLaws's right, and extending to the rear along the margin of the wood which skirts Deep Run valley; Hood's division near Hamilton's Crossing of the railroad; Ransom's division in reserve, near my headquarters. Our batteries were assigned positions along the heights by General Pendleton, Colonel Cabell, Colonel Alexander, and Captain Johnson, (Colonel Walton being absent sick.) Pits were made for the protection of these batteries under the supervision of those officers. A portion of General Pendleton's reserve artillery was assigned to the heights with Major-General McLaws's division. Colonel Walton's (Washington Artillery) occupied the heights at Marye's Hill, and a portion of Colonel Alexander's reserve occupied the other portion of Anderson's front, extending to the Taylor house, on our left. The brigade batteries that were not assigned to positions on the heights were held in readiness to cooperate with their commands, or for any other service that might be required of them. Our picket line was established along the river bank extending from Bank's Ford to Talcott battery, the most important portion of it under the immediate orders of Major-General McLaws. Upon the approach of General Jackson's army, Hood's division was closed in upon the right of Pickett, and put in position upon the heights on the opposite side of Deep Run valley. In addition to the natural strength of the position, ditches, stone fences, and road-cuts were found along different portions of the line, and parts of General McLaws's line were further strengthened by rifle trenches and abatis. The enemy held quiet possession of the Stafford Heights until three o'clock on the morning of the eleventh, when our signal guns gave notice of his approach. The troops, being at their different camp grounds, were formed immediately, and marched to their positions along the line. Ransom's division was ordered to take a sheltered position in easy supporting distance of the batteries on the Marye Hill. Before the troops got to their positions, McLaws's pickets (Barksdale's brigade) engaged the enemy at the river, and from time to time drove back different working parties engaged in laying the bridges. The enemy was compelled, eventually, to abandon his plan of laying the bridges, and began to throw his troops across the river in boats, under cover of the fire of his sharpshooters, and a hundred and fifty odd pieces of artillery. At many points along the river bank our troops could get no protection from the artillery fire. This was particularly the case at the mouth of Deep Run, where the enemy succeeded in completing his bridge early in the afternoon. Later in the afternoon he succeeded in throwing large bodies of troops across, at the city, by using his boats. Barksdale, however, engaged them fiercely at every point, and with remarkable success. Soon after dark, General McLaws ordered Barksdale's brigade to retire. The General was so confident of his position that a second order was sent him before he would yield the field. His brigade was then relieved by that of Brigadier-General T. R. R. Cobb, which was placed by General McLaws along the Telegraph road, in front of Marye's house, (a stone fence and cut along this road gave good protection against infantry.) When Cobb's brigade got into position,  Ransom's division was withdrawn and placed in reserve. During the night the enemy finished his bridges and began to throw his troops across. His movements, early on the twelfth, seemed to be directly against our right; but when the fog lifted, columns were seen opposite Fredericksburg, the head of them then crossing at the bridges opposite the city. Ransom's division was moved back to the Marye Hill. Featherston's brigade of Anderson's division (previously occupying this hill) was closed in upon the other brigades of Anderson. The entire day was occupied by the enemy in throwing his forces across the river and deploying his columns. Our batteries were opened upon the masses of infantry whenever they were in certain range. Our fire invariably drew that of the enemy's on the opposite heights, and they generally kept up the fire long after our batteries had ceased. Early on the morning of the thirteenth, I rode to the right of my position, Hood's division. The dense fog in the early twilight concealed the enemy from view; but his commands, “Forward, guide centre, march!” were distinctly heard at different points near my right. From the direction of the sound, and the position of his troops the day before, I concluded that his attack would be upon General Jackson, at some point beyond my right. I therefore rode back to a point near the centre of my forces, giving notice to General Hood that the enemy would attack General Jackson beyond his right, that be should watch carefully the movements, and when an opportunity offered, he should move forward and attack the enemy's flank. Similar instructions were given to General Pickett, with orders to cooperate with General Hood. The attack was made, as had been anticipated. It did not appear to have all the force of a real attack, however, and General Hood did not feel authorized to make more than a partial advance. Where he did move out, he drove the enemy back in handsome style. About eleven o'clock, A. M., I sent orders for the batteries to play upon the streets and bridges beyond the city, by way of diversion in favor of our right. The batteries had hardly opened, when the enemy's infantry began to move out toward my line. Our pickets in front of the Marye house were soon driven in, and the enemy began to deploy his forces in front of that point. Our artillery, being in position, opened fire as soon as the masses became dense enough to warrant it. This fire was very destructive and demoralizing in its effects, and frequently made gaps in the enemy's ranks that could be seen at the distance of a mile. The enemy continued his advance, and made his attack at the Marye Hill in hand — some style. He did not meet the fire of our infantry with any heart, however, and was therefore readily repulsed. Another effort was speedily made, but with little more success. The attack was again renewed, and again repulsed. Other forces were seen preparing for another attack, when I suggested to General McLaws the propriety of reenforcing his advanced line with a brigade. He had previously reenforced with part of Kershaw's brigade, and ordered forward the balance. About this time, Brigadier-General T. R. R. Cobb fell, mortally wounded, and almost simultaneously Brigadier-General, J. R. Cooke was severely wounded. General Kershaw dashed to the front to take the command. General Ransom, on the Marye Hill, was charged with the immediate care of the point attacked, with orders to send forward additional reenforcements, if it should become necessary, and to use Featherston's brigade (Anderson's division) if he. should require it. The attack upon our right seemed to subside about two o'clock, when I directed Major-General Pickett to send me two of his brigades. One (Kemper's) was sent to General Ransom, to be placed in some secure position, to be ready in case it should be wanted. The other (Jenkins's) was ordered to General McLaws, to replace that of Kershaw in his line. The enemy soon completed his arrangements for a renewed attack, and moved forward with much determination. He met with no better success than he had on the previous occasions. These efforts were repeated and continued from time to time till after night, when he left the field literally strewn with his dead and wounded.
Brigadier-General R. H. Chilton, Assistant Adjutant and Inspector-General:
Brigadier-General R. H. Chilton, Assistant Adjutant and Inspector-General: