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[1054a] [1] Similarly in the case of sounds, existing things would be a number of letters, and unity would be a vowel;and if existing things were right-lined figures, they would be a number of figures, and unity would be a triangle. And the same principle holds for all other genera. Therefore if in the categories of passivity and quality and quantity and motion there is in every category a number and a unity, and if the number is of particular things and the unity is a particular unity, and its substance is not unity, then the same must be true in the case of substances, because the same is true in all cases.

It is obvious, then, that in every genus one is a definite entity, and that in no case is its nature merely unity; but as in the sphere of colors the One-itself which we have to seek is one color, so too in the sphere of substance the One-itself is one substance.And that in a sense unity means the same as being is clear (a) from the fact that it has a meaning corresponding to each of the categories, and is contained in none of them—e.g., it is contained neither in substance nor in quality, but is related to them exactly as being is; (b) from the fact that in "one man" nothing more is predicated than in "man"1(just as Being too does not exist apart from some thing or quality or quantity); and (c) because "to be one" is "to be a particular thing."

[20] "One" and "Many" are opposed in several ways. Unity and Plurality are opposed as being indivisible and divisible; for that which is divided or divisible is called a plurality, and that which is indivisible or undivided is called one. Then since opposition is of four kinds, and one of the present pairs of opposites is used in a privative sense, they must be contraries, and neither contradictories nor relative terms.Unity is described and explained by its contrary—the indivisible by the divisible—because plurality, i.e. the divisible, is more easily perceptible than the indivisible; and so in formula plurality is prior to the indivisible, on account of our powers of perception.

To Unity belong (as we showed by tabulation in our distinction of the contraries2) Identity, Similarity and Equality; and to Plurality belong Otherness, Dissimilarity and Inequality.

"Identity"3 has several meanings. (a) Sometimes we speak of it in respect of number. (b) We call a thing the same if it is one both in formula and in number, e.g., you are one with yourself both in form and in matter;

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