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[1068a] [1] And since every motion is a kind of change, and the three kinds of change are those which we have described,1 and of these those which relate to generation and destruction are not motions, and these are the changes between contradictories, the change from positive to positive must alone be motion. The subjects are either contraries or intermediates (for privative terms may also be regarded as contraries) and are denoted by a positive term—e.g. "naked" or "toothless" or "black."

Now since the categories are distinguished as substance, quality, place, activity or passivity, relation and quantity,2 there must be three kinds of motion, in respect of quality, quantity and place. There is no motion3 in respect of substance, because substance has no contrary; nor of the relative, because it is possible that when one of two related things changes the relation to it of the other thing, even though the thing itself does not change, may become untrue; therefore the motion of these related things is accidental.Nor is there motion of the agent or patient, or of the mover and the thing moved, because there is no motion of motion nor no generation of generation, nor in general is there change of change. There are two ways in which there might be motion of motion: (1) Motion might be the subject of motion, as, e.g., a man is moved because he changes from white to black; in this way motion might be heated or cooled or might change its place or increase. [20] But this is impossible, because the change is not a subject. Or (2) some other subject might change from change to some other form of existence, as, e.g., a man changes from sickness to health. But this is also impossible except accidentally.Every motion is a change from one thing into something else; and the same is true of generation and destruction, except that these are changes into opposites in one sense,4 while the other, i.e. motion, is a change into opposites in another sense.5 Hence a thing changes at the same time from health to sickness, and from this change itself into another.Now clearly if it has fallen ill it will be already changed (for it cannot remain at rest) into that other change, whatever it may be; and further this cannot be, in any given case, any chance change; and it also must be from something into something else. Therefore it will be the opposite change, viz. becoming healthy. But this is so accidentally; just as there is change from recollecting to forgetting because the subject changes, now in the direction of knowledge and now in that of ignorance.

Further, we shall have an infinite series if there is to be change of change and becoming of becoming, because if the latter of two becomings comes to be from the former, the former must come to be too.

1 sect. 3.

2 Aristotle generally distinguishes eight categories (originally ten, but he seems to have abandoned κεῖσθαι"position" and ἔχειν"state" at an early date); here he omits "time" as being relative to motion (it is that by which motion can be numerically estimated; cf. Aristot. Met. 12.6.2, Aristot. Phys. 219b 1) and therefore neither the subject nor the terminus of motion. Cf. Ross ad loc.

3 There is, however, change in respect of substance (generation and destruction), but this is between contradictories and is not motion in the strict sense. Cf. Aristot. Met. 11.11.6, and sect. 4 below. The distinction between motion and change is not always maintained.

4 sc. contradictories.

5 sc. contraries.

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