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[1024b] [1] (c) In the sense that the plane is the "genus" of plane figures, and the solid of solids (for each one of the figures is either a particular plane or a particular solid); i.e., that which underlies the differentiae.(d) In the sense that in formulae the first component, which is stated as part of the essence, is the genus, and the qualities are said to be its differentiae. The term "genus," then, is used in all these senses—(a) in respect of continuous generation of the same type; (b) in respect of the first mover of the same type as the things which it moves; (c) in the sense of material. For that to which the differentia or quality belongs is the substrate, which we call material.

Things are called "generically different" whose immediate substrates are different and cannot be resolved one into the other or both into the same thing. E.g., form and matter are generically different, and all things which belong to different categories of being; for some of the things of which being is predicated denote the essence, others a quality, and others the various other things which have already been distinguished. For these also cannot be resolved either into each other or into any one thing.

"False" means: (i) false as a thing ; (a) because it is not or cannot be substantiated; such are the statements that the diagonal of a square is commensurable, [20] or that you are sitting. Of these one is false always, and the other sometimes; it is in these senses that these things are not facts.(b) Such things as really exist, but whose nature it is to seem either such as they are not, or like things which are unreal; e.g. chiaroscuro and dreams. For these are really something, but not that of which they create the impression. Things, then, are called false in these senses: either because they themselves are unreal, or because the impression derived from them is that of something unreal.

(2.) A false statement is the statement of what is not, in so far as the statement is false. Hence every definition is untrue of anything other than that of which it is true; e.g., the definition of a circle is untrue of a triangle. Now in one sense there is only one definition of each thing, namely that of its essence; but in another sense there are many definitions,1 since the thing itself, and the thing itself qualified (e.g. "Socrates" and "cultured Socrates") are in a sense the same.But the false definition is not strictly a definition of anything. Hence it was foolish of Antisthenes2 to insist that nothing can be described except by its proper definition: one predicate for one subject; from which it followed that contradiction is impossible, and falsehood3 nearly so. But it is possible to describe everything not only by its own definition but by that of something else; quite falsely, and yet also in a sense truly—e.g., 8 may be described as "double" by the definition of 2.

1 Here Aristotle is using the word λόγος not in the strict sense of "definition" but in the looser sense of "a statement about something."

2 The Cynic; contemporary and renegade "disciple" of Socrates. He taught that definition, and even predication, are strictly speaking impossible. A simple entity can only be named; a complex entity can only be "defined" by naming its simple constituents. Cf. Aristot. Met. 8.3.7, 8; Plat. Theaet. 201d-202c, Plat. Soph. 251b, c.

3 Cf. Plat. Euthyd. 283e-284c, 286c, d.

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