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[1039b] [1] how can the one which in things that exist separately be one, and why should not this "animal" also be separated from itself? Again, if it is to partake of "two-footed" and of "many-footed," an impossibility follows; for contrary attributes will belong to it although it is one and individual.But if it does not, in what sense is it that one calls an animal "two-footed" or "terrestrial"? Perhaps the terms are "combined" and "in contact" or "mixed." But all these expressions are absurd.

(2) "But there is a different 'animal' in each species." Then there will be practically an infinity of things of which "animal" is the substance, since it is not in an accidental sense that "man" is derived from "animal."Again, the Absolute Animal will be a plurality. For (a) the "animal" in each species will be the substance of that species, since the species is called after it and no other thing. Otherwise "man" would be derived from that other thing, which would be the genus of "man." (b) Further, all the constituents of "man" will be Ideas. Then, since nothing can be the Idea of one thing and the substance of another (for this is impossible),each and every "animal" in the various species will be the Absolute Animal.

Further, from what will these Forms be derived, and how can they be derived from the Absolute Animal? Or how can "the animal," whose very essence is "animal," exist apart from the Absolute Animal? And further, in the case of sensible things both these and still more absurd consequences follow. If, then, these consequences are impossible, clearly there are not Forms of sensible things in the sense in which some hold that there are.

[20] Since substance is of two kinds, the concrete thing and the formula (I mean that one kind of substance is the formula in combination with the matter, and the other is the formula in its full sense), substances in the former sense admit of destruction, for they also admit of generation. But the formula does not admit of destruction in the sense that it is ever being destroyed, since neither does it so admit of generation (for the essence of house is not generated, but only the essence of this house); formulae are , and are not, independently of generation and destruction; for it has been shown1 that no one either generates or creates them.For this reason also there is no definition or demonstration of particular sensible substances, because they contain matter whose nature is such that it can both exist and not exist. Hence all the individual instances of them are perishable.If, then, the demonstration and definition of necessary truths requires scientific knowledge, and if, just as knowledge cannot be sometimes knowledge and sometimes ignorance (it is opinion that is of this nature), so too demonstration and definition cannot vary (it is opinion that is concerned with that which can be otherwise than it is)—

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