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[1020b] [1] which shows that the essential differentia is quality.In this one sense, then, "quality" means differentia of essence; but (b) in another it is used as of immovable and mathematical objects, in the sense that numbers are in a way qualitative—e.g. such as are composite and are represented geometrically not by a line but by a plane or solid (these are products respectively of two and of three factors)—and in general means that which is present besides quantity in the essence. For the essence of each number is that which goes into it once; e.g. that of 6 is not what goes twice or three times, but what goes once; for 6 is once 6.(c) All affections of substance in motion in respect of which bodies become different when they (the affections) change—e.g. heat and cold, whiteness and blackness, heaviness and lightness, etc. (d) The term is used with reference to goodness and badness, and in general to good and bad.

Thus there are, roughly speaking, two meanings which the term "quality" can bear, and of these one is more fundamental than the other. Quality in the primary sense is the differentia of the essence; and quality in numbers falls under this sense, because it is a kind of differentia of essences, but of things either not in motion or not qua in motion. Secondly, there are the affections of things in motion qua in motion, and the differentiae of motions.Goodness and badness fall under these affections, [20] because they denote differentiae of the motion or functioning in respect of which things in motion act or are acted upon well or badly. For that which can function or be moved in such-and-such a way is good, and that which can function in such-and-such a way and in the contrary way is bad. Quality refers especially to "good" and "bad" in the case of living things, and of these especially in the case of such as possess choice.

Things are called "relative" (a) In the sense that "the double" is relative to the half, and "the triple" to the third; and in general the "many times greater" to the "many times smaller," and that which exceeds to the thing exceeded. (b) In the sense that the thing which heats or cuts is relative to the thing heated or cut; and in general the active to the passive. (c) In the sense that the measurable is relative to the measure, and the knowable to knowledge, and the sensible to sensation.

(a) In the first sense they are said to be numerically relative; either simply, or in a definite relation to numbers or to 1. E.g., "the double" in relation to 1 is a definite number; the "many times as great" is in a numerical relation to 1, but not in a definite relation such as this or that ;

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