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(2) Again, experience of some particular form of danger is taken for a sort of Courage; hence arose Socrates' notion that Courage is Knowledge.1 This type of bravery is displayed in various circumstances, and particularly in war by professional soldiers.2 For war (as the saying is) is full of false alarms, a fact which these men have had most opportunity of observing; thus they appear courageous owing to others' ignorance of the true situation.

1 i.e., knowledge of what is truly formidable and what is not (cf. note on 8.1); but Socrates went on to show that this depended on knowledge of the good, with which he identified all virtue: see Plato's Laches.

2 i.e., ξένοι, foreign mercenary troops, much employed in Greek warfare in Aristotle's time.

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