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[432a] respectively made the city, the one wise and the other brave. That is not the way of soberness, but it extends literally through the entire gamut1 throughout, bringing about2 the unison in the same chant of the strongest, the weakest and the intermediate, whether in wisdom or, if you please,3 in strength, or for that matter in numbers, wealth, or any similar criterion. So that we should be quite right in affirming this unanimity4 to be soberness, the concord of the naturally superior and inferior [432b] as to which ought to rule both in the state and the individual.5” “I entirely concur,” he said. “Very well,” said I. “We have made out these three forms in our city to the best of our present judgement.6 What can be the remaining form that7 would give the city still another virtue? For it is obvious that the remainder is justice.” “Obvious.” “Now then,8 Glaucon, is the time for us like huntsmen9 to surround the covert and keep close watch that justice may not slip through and get away from us and vanish [432c] from our sight. It plainly must be somewhere hereabouts. Keep your eyes open then and do your best to descry it. You may see it before I do and point it out to me.” “Would that I could,” he said; “but I think rather that if you find in me one who can follow you and discern what you point out to him you will be making a very fair10 use of me.” “Pray11 for success then,” said I, “and follow along with me.” “That I will do, only lead on,” he said. “And truly,” said I, “it appears to be an inaccessible place, lying in deep shadows.” “It certainly is a dark covert, [432d] not easy to beat up.” “But all the same on we must go.” “Yes, on.” And I caught view and gave a hulloa and said, “Glaucon, I think we have found its trail and I don't believe it will get away from us.” “I am glad to hear that,” said he. “Truly,” said I, “we were slackers12 indeed.” “How so?” “Why, all the time, bless your heart, the thing apparently was tumbling about our feet13 from the start and yet we couldn't see it, but were most ludicrous, like [432e] people who sometimes hunt for what they hold in their hands.14 So we did not turn our eyes upon it, but looked off into the distance, which perhaps was the reason it escaped us.” “What do you mean?” he said. “This,” I replied, “that it seems to me that though we were speaking of it and hearing about it all the time we did not understand ourselves15 or realize that we were speaking of it in a sense.” “That is a tedious prologue,” he said, “for an eager listener.”

1 δι᾽ ὅλης: sc.τῆς πόλεως, but as ἀτεχνῶς shows (Cf. on 419 E) it already suggets the musical metaphor of the entire octave διὰ πασῶν.

2 The word order of the following is noteworthy. The translation gives the meaning.ταὐτόν, the object of συνᾴδοντας, is, by a trait of style that grows more frequent in the Laws and was imitated by Cicero, so placed as to break the monotony of the accusative terminations.

3 For the comparison the kind of superiority is indifferent. See Thompson on Meno 71 E and compare the enumeration of claims to power in the Laws,ἀξιώματα . . . τοῦ ἀρχεῖν, Laws 690 A ff. and 434 B.

4 The final statement of the definition, which, however, has little significance for Plato's thought, when isolated from its explanatory context. Cf. Def. Plat. 413 E, Unity of Plato's Thought, pp. 15. f., n. 82. Quite idle is the discussion whether σωφροσύνη is otiose, and whether it can be absolutely distinguished from δικαιοσύνη. They are sufficiently distinguished for Plato's purpose in the imagery and analogies of the Republic.

5 Cf. on 351 E.

6 Cf. Demosthenes 18 and 430 Eὥς γε ἐντεῦθεν ἰδεῖν. Plato's definitions and analyses are never presented as final. They are always sufficient for the purpose in hand. Cf. Unity of Plato's Thought, p. 13, nn. 63-67 and 519.

7 δι᾽ : cf. my paper on the Origin of the Syllogism, Class. Phil. vol. xix. pp. 7 ff. This is an example of the terminology of the theory of ideas “already” in the first four books. Cf. Unity of Plato's Thought, p. 35, n. 238, p. 38.

8 νῦν δή: i.e.νῦν ἤδη.

9 Cf. Soph. 235 B, Euthydemus 290 B-C, Phaedo 66 C, Laws 654 E, Parmenides 128 C, Lysis 218 C, Thompson on Meno 96 E, Huxley, Hume , p. 139 “There cannot be two passions more nearly resembling each other than hunting and philosophy.” Cf. also Hardy's “He never could beat the covert of conversation without starting the game.” The elaboration of the image here is partly to mark the importance of δικαιοσύνη and partly to relieve the monotony of continuous argument.

10 It is not necessary, though plausible, to emend μετρίως to μετρίῳ. The latter is slightly more idiomatical. Cf. Terence's “benigno me utetur patre.”

11 Prayer is the proper preface of any act. Cf. Timaeus 27 C, Laws 712 B.

12 τὸ πάθος: for the periphrasis cf. 376 A.

13 Cf. Theaetetus 201 A.

14 A homely figure such as Dante and Tennyson sometimes use.

15 This sounds like Hegel but is not Hegelian thought.

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