previous next
[581a] for the gratification of such desires.” “And rightly,” he said. “And if we should also say that its pleasure and its love were for gain or profit, should we not thus best bring it together under one head1 in our discourse so as to understand each other when we speak of this part of the soul, and justify our calling it the money-loving and gain-loving part?” “I, at any rate, think so,” he said. “And, again, of the high-spirited element, do we not say that it is wholly set on predominance and victory and good repute?” [581b] “Yes, indeed.” “And might we not appropriately designate it as the ambitious part and that which is covetous of honor?” “Most appropriately.” “But surely it is obvious to everyone that all the endeavor of the part by which we learn is ever towards2 knowledge of the truth of things, and that it least of the three is concerned for wealth and reputation.” “Much the least.” “Lover of learning3 and lover of wisdom would be suitable designations for that.” “Quite so,” he said. “Is it not also true,” I said, [581c] “that the ruling principle4 of men's souls is in some cases this faculty and in others one of the other two, as it may happen?” “That is so,” he said. “And that is why we say that the primary classes5 of men also are three, the philosopher or lover of wisdom, the lover of victory and the lover of gain.” “Precisely so” “And also that there are three forms of pleasure, corresponding respectively to each?” “By all means.” “Are you aware, then” said I, “that if you should choose to ask men of these three classes, each in turn,6 which is the most pleasurable of these lives, each will chiefly commend his own7? The financier [581d] will affirm that in comparison with profit the pleasures of honor or of learning area of no value except in so far as they produce money.” “True,” he said. “And what of the lover of honor8?” I said; “does he not regard the pleasure that comes from money as vulgar9 and low, and again that of learning, save in so far as the knowledge confers honor, mere fume10 and moonshine?” “It is so,” he said. “And what,” said I, “are we to suppose the philosopher thinks of the other pleasures [581e] compared with the delight of knowing the truth11 and the reality, and being always occupied with that while he learns? Will he not think them far removed from true pleasure,12 and call13 them literally14 the pleasures of necessity,15 since he would have no use for them if necessity were not laid upon him?” “We may be sure of that,” he said.

“Since, then, there is contention between the several types of pleasure and the lives themselves, not merely as to which is the more honorable or the more base, or the worse or the better, but which is actually the more pleasurable16 or free from pain,

1 Since there is no one specific name for the manifold forms of this part (580 D-E), a makeshift term is to be used for convenience' sake. See also p. 371, note e.

2 Or “is bent on,”τέταται. Cf. 499 Aζητεῖν . . . τὸ ἀληθὲς συντεταμένως, Symp. 222 A and Bury ad loc., Symp. 186 Bἐπὶ πᾶν θεὸς τείνει. For the thought cf. also Phileb. 58 D.

3 Cf. Phaedo 67 Bτοὺς ὀρθῶς φιλομαθεῖς.

4 Cf. 338 D, 342 C.

5 Cf. my review of Jowett in A.J.P. xiii. p. 366, which Adam quotes and follows and Jowett and Campbell (Republic) adopt. For the three types of men cf. also Phaedo 68 C, 82 C. Stewart, Aristot. Eth. Nic. p. 60 (1095 b 17), says, “The three lives mentioned by Aristotle here answer to the three classes of men distinguished by Plato (Rep. 581). . . . Michelet and Grant point out that this threefold division occurs in a metaphor attributed to Pythagoras by Heracleides Ponticus (apudCic.Tusc. v. 3). . . . “ Cf. Aristot.Eth. Nic. 1097 a-b (i. 5. 1), also Diog. L. vii. 130 on Stoics, Plutarch, De liber. educ. x. (8 A), Renan, Avenir de Ia science, p. 8. Isoc.Antid. 217 characteristically recognizes only the three motives, pleasure, gain, and honor. For the entire argument cf. Aristot.Eth. Nic. 1176 a 31, 1177 a 10, and supra,Introd. pp. liv-lv.

6 For ἐν μέρει cf. 468 B, 520 C and D, 577 C, 615 A, Gorg. 496 B, Laws 876 B, 943 A, 947 C, Polit. 265 A; Contrasted with ἐν τῷ μέρει, Meno 92 E, Gorg. 462 A, 474 A. The two expressions, similar in appearance, illustrate how a slight change alters an idiom. So e.g.καινὸν οὐδένGorg. 448 A) has nothing to do with the idiom οὐδὲν καινόνPhaedo 100 B);τοῦ λόγου ἕνεκαRep. 612 C) is different from λόγου ἕνεκαTheaet. 191 C—dicis causa);πάντα τἀγαθάLaws 631 B) has no connection with the idiomatic πάντ᾽ ἀγαθάRep. 471 C, Cf. supra ad loc.); nor Pindar's πόλλ᾽ ἄνω τὰ δ᾽ αὖ κάτωOl. xii. 6) with ἄνω κάτω as used in Phaedo 96 B, Gorg. 481 D, etc. Cf. also ἐν τέχνῃProt. 319 C with ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ317 C,νῷ ἔχεινRep. 490 A with ἐν νῷ ἔχειν344 D, etc.,τοῦ παντὸς ἡμάρτηκενPhaedr. 235 E with παντὸς ἁμαρτάνειν237 C. The same is true of words—to confuse καλλίχορος with καλλίχοιρος would be unfortunate; and the medieval debates about ὁμοουσία and ὁμοιουσία were perhaps not quite as ridiculous as they are generally considered.

7 Cf. Laws 658 on judging different kinds of literature.

8 Cf. p. 255, note f, on 549 A. Xenophon is the typical φιλότιμος. In Mem. iii. 3. 13 he says that the Athenians “excel others in love of honor, which is the strongest incentive to deeds of honor and renown” (Marchant, Loeb tr.). Cf. Epist. 320 A, Symp. 178 D, and also Xen.Cyrop. i. 2. 1, Mem. iii. i. 10.

9 Cf. Aristot.Eth. Nic. 1095 b 16, and on 528 E.

10 Cf. Blaydes on Aristoph.Clouds 920, and Turgeniev's novel, Smoke.

11 Cf. Phileb. 58 C on dialectic.

12 Cf. 598 B, Epist. iii. 315 C, Marc. Aurel. viii. 1πόρρω φιλοσοφίας. Hermann's text or something like it is the only idiomatic one, and τῆς ἡδονῆς οὐ πάνυ πόρρω must express the philosopher's opinion of the pleasurableness of the lower pleasures as compared with the higher. Cf. A.J.P. xiii. p. 366.

13 For the infinitive cf. 492 Cκαὶ φήσειν, 530 Bκαὶ ζητεῖν.

14 τῷ ὄντι marks the etymological use of ἀναγκαίας. Cf. on 511 B and 551 E, p. 266, note a.

15 Cf. 558 D f.

16 This anticipates Laws 663 A, 733 A-B, 734 A-B.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

load focus Notes (James Adam)
load focus Greek (1903)
hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
1095 AD (2)
1177 AD (1)
1176 AD (1)
1097 AD (1)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: