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[578a] be rich or poor?” “Poor.” “Then the tyrant soul also must of necessity always be needy1 and suffer from unfulfilled desire.” “So it is,” he said. “And again, must not such a city, as well as such a man, be full of terrors and alarms?” “It must indeed.” “And do you think you will find more lamentations and groans and wailing and anguish in any other city?” “By no means.” “And so of man, do you think these things will more abound in any other than in this tyrant type, that is maddened by its desires and passions?” “How could it be so?” he said. “In view of all these [578b] and other like considerations, then, I take it, you judged that this city is the most miserable of cities.” “And was I not right?” he said. “Yes, indeed,” said I. “But of the tyrant man, what have you to say in view of these same things?” “That he is far and away the most miserable of all,” he said. “I cannot admit,” said I, “that you are right in that too.” “How so?” said he. “This one,” said I, “I take it, has not yet attained the acme of misery.2” “Then who has?” “Perhaps you will regard the one I am about to name as still more wretched.” [578c] “What one?” “The one,” said I, “who, being of tyrannical temper, does not live out3 his life in private station4 but is so unfortunate that by some unhappy chance he is enabled to become an actual tyrant.” “I infer from what has already been said,” he replied, “that you speak truly.” “Yes,” said I, “but it is not enough to suppose such things. We must examine them thoroughly by reason and an argument such as this.5 For our inquiry concerns the greatest of all things,6 the good life or the bad life.” “Quite right,” he replied. “Consider, then, if there is anything in what I say. [578d] For I think we must get a notion of the matter from these examples.” “From which?” “From individual wealthy private citizens in our states who possess many slaves. For these resemble the tyrant in being rulers over many, only the tyrant's numbers are greater.7” “Yes, they are.” “You are aware, then, that they are unafraid and do not fear their slaves?” “What should they fear?” “Nothing,” I said; “but do you perceive the reason why?” “Yes, because the entire state [578e] is ready to defend each citizen.” “You are right,” I said. “But now suppose some god should catch up a man who has fifty or more slaves8 and waft him with his wife and children away from the city and set him down with his other possessions and his slaves in a solitude where no freeman could come to his rescue. What and how great would be his fear,9 do you suppose, lest he and his wife and children be destroyed by the slaves?” “The greatest in the world,10” he said, “if you ask me.”

1 Cf. Laws 832 Aπεινῶσι τὴν ψυχήν, Xen.Symp. 4. 36πεινῶσι χρημάτων, Oecon. xiii. 9πεινῶσι γὰρ τοῦ ἐπαίνου, Aristot.Pol. 1277 a 24 “Jason said he was hungry when he was not a tyrant,” Shakes.TempestI. ii. 112 “so dry he was for sway.” Cf. Novotny, p. 1902, on Epist. vii. 335 B, also Max. Tyr.Diss. iv. 4τί γὰρ ἂν εἴη πενέστερον ἀνδρὸς ἐπιθυμοῦντος διηνεκῶς . . . ; Julian, Or. ii. 85 B, Teles (Hense), pp. 32-33. for the thought see also Gorg. 493-494. cf. also 521 A with 416 E, Phaedr. 279 C, and Epist. 355 C.

2 Cf. on 508 E, p. 104, note c.

3 Cf. Protag. 355 A, Alc. I. 104 E, 579 C.

4 Stallbaum quotes Plut.De virtut. et vit. p. 101 D, Lucian, Herm. 67ἰδιώτην βίον ζῆν, Philo, Vit. Mos. 3.

5 Adam ad loc. emends τῷ τοιούτῳ to τῶ τοιοῦτω, insisting that the MS. reading cannot be satisfactorily explained.

6 Cf. Vol. I. p. 71, note f on 344 D-E, and What Plato Said, p. 484, on Laches 185 A.

7 Cf. Polit. 259 B. But Plato is not concerned with the question of size or numbers here.

8 Plato's imaginary illustration is one of his many anticipations of later history, and suggests to an American many analogies.

9 Cf. Critias, fr. 37 Diels ii.3 p. 324, on Sparta's fear of her slaves.

10 For ἐν παντί cf. 579 B, Symp. 194 Aἐν παντὶ εἴης, Euthyd. 301 Aἐν παντὶ ἐγενόμην ὑπὸ ἀπορίας, Xen.Hell. v. 4. 29, Thucyd. vii. 55, Isoc. xiii. 20ἐν πᾶσιν . . κακοῖς. Cf.παντοῖος εἶναιγίννεσθαι) Herod. ix. 109, vii. 10. 3, iii. 124, Lucian, Pro lapsu 1.

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