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[575a] but the passion that dwells in him as a tyrant will live in utmost anarchy and lawlessness, and, since it is itself sole autocrat, will urge the polity,1 so to speak, of him in whom it dwells2 to dare anything and everything in order to find support for himself and the hubbub of his henchmen,3 in part introduced from outside by evil associations, and in part released and liberated within by the same habits of life as his. Is not this the life of such a one?” “It is this,” he said. “And if,” I said, “there are only a few of this kind in a city, [575b] and the others, the multitude as a whole, are sober-minded, the few go forth into exile and serve some tyrant elsewhere as bodyguard or become mercenaries in any war there may be. But if they spring up in time of peace and tranquillity they stay right there in the city and effect many small evils.” “What kind of evils do you mean?” “Oh, they just steal, break into houses, cut purses, strip men of their garments, plunder temples, and kidnap,4 and if they are fluent speakers they become sycophants and bear false witness and take bribes.” [575c] “Yes, small evils indeed,5” he said, “if the men of this sort are few.” “Why, yes,” I said, “for small evils are relatively small compared with great, and in respect of the corruption and misery of a state all of them together, as the saying goes, don't come within hail6 of the mischief done by a tyrant. For when men of this sort and their followers become numerous in a state and realize their numbers, then it is they who, in conjunction with the folly of the people, create a tyrant out of that one of them who has [575d] the greatest and mightiest tyrant in his own soul.” “Naturally,” he said, “for he would be the most tyrannical.” “Then if the people yield willingly—’tis well,7 but if the city resists him, then, just as in the previous case the man chastized his mother and his father, so now in turn will he chastize his fatherland if he can, bringing in new boon companions beneath whose sway he will hold and keep enslaved his once dear motherland8—as the Cretans name her—and fatherland. And this would be the end of such a man's desire.9” [575e] “Yes,” he said, “this, just this.” “Then,” said I, “is not this the character of such men in private life and before they rule the state: to begin with they associate with flatterers, who are ready to do anything to serve them,

1 Cf. on 591 E.

2 τὸν ἔχοντα: Cf. Phaedr. 239 C, Laws 837 B, Soph.Antig. 790 and also Rep. 610 C and E.

3 For the tyrant's companions cf. Newman, i. p. 274, note 1.

4 Cf. the similar lists of crimes in Gorg. 508 E, Xen.Mem. i. 2. 62.

5 So Shaw and other moderns argue in a somewhat different tone that crimes of this sort are an unimportant matter.

6 οὐδ᾽ ἴκταρ βάλλει was proverbial, “doesn't strike near,” “doesn't come within range.” Cf. Aelian, N.A. xv. 29. Cf. also οὐδ᾽ ἐγγύς, Symp. 198 B, 221 D, Herod. ii. 121, Demosth.De cor. 97.

7 In the Greek the apodosis is suppressed. Cf. Protag. 325 D. Adam refers to Herwerden, Mn. xix. pp. 338 f.

8 So also the Hindus of Bengal, The Nation,July 13, 1911, p. 28. Cf. Isoc. iv. 25πατρίδα καὶ μητέρα, Lysias ii. 18μητέρα καὶ πατρίδα, Plut. 792 E (An seni resp. δὲ πατρὶς καὶ μητρὶς ὡς Κρῆτες καλοῦσι. Vol. I. p. 303, note e, on 414 E, Menex. 239 A.

9 Cf. the accidental coincidence of Swinburne's refrain, “This is the end of every man's desire” (Ballad of Burdens).

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