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1 A recurrence to etymological meaning. Cf.ἄθυμον411 B, Laws 888 A,εὐψυχίαςLaws 791 C, Thompson on Meno 78 E, Aristot.Topics 112 a 32-38, Eurip.Heracleidae 730ἀσθαλῶς, Shakes.Rich. III. v. v. 37 “reduce these bloody days again.”
2 For a similar teasing or playful repetition of a word cf. 517 C, 394 B, 449 C, 470 B-C.
4 Cf. Adam ad loc. and Wilamowitz, Platon, ii. 121.
7 Cf. on 486 A, also Phileb. 58 D, 59 A, Tim. 90 D, and perhaps Tim. 47 A and Phaedo 79. This passage is often supposed to refer to the ideas, and ἐκεῖ in 500 D shows that Plato is in fact there thinking of them, though in Rep. 529 A-B ff. he protests against this identification. And strictly speaking κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἀεὶ ἔχοντα in C would on Platonic principles be true only of the ideas. Nevertheless poets and imitators have rightly felt that the dominating thought of the passage is the effect on the philosopher's mind of the contemplation of the heavens. This confusion or assimilation is, of course, still more natural to Aristotle, who thought the stars unchanging. Cf. Met. 1063 a 16ταὐτὰ δ᾽ αἰεὶ καὶ μεταβολῆς οὐδεμιᾶς κοινωνοῦντα. Cf. also Sophocles, Ajax 669 ff., and Shorey in Sneath, Evolution of Ethics, pp. 261-263, Dio Chrys. xl. (Teubner ii. p. 199), Boethius, Cons. iii. 8 “respicite caeli spatium . . . et aliquando desinite vilia mirari.”
9 Cf. on 493 D, and for the idea 383 C.
11 The philosopher unwillingly holds office. Cf. on 345 E.
13 For the word πλάττειν used of the lawgiver cf. 377 C, Laws 671 C, 712 B, 746 A, 800 B, Rep. 374 A, 377 c, 420 c, 466 A, 588 C, etc. For the idea that the ruler shapes the state according to the pattern Cf. 540 A-B. Plato apples the language of the theory of ideas to the “social tissue” here exactly as he apples it to the making of a tool in the Cratylus 389 C. In both cases there is a workman, the ideal pattern and the material in which it is more or less perfectly embodied. Such passages are the source of Aristotle's doctrine f matter and form. Cf. Met. 1044 a 25De part. an. 630 b 25-27, 640 b 24 f., 642 a 10 ff., De an. 403 b 3, Seller, Aristot.(Eng.) i. p. 356. Cf. also Gorg. 503 D-E, Polit. 306 C, 309 D and Unity of Plato's Thought, pp. 31-32. Cf. Alcinous,Εἰσαγωγή ii. (Teubner vi. p. 153)ἃ κατὰ τὸν θεωρητικὸν βίον ὁρᾶται, μελετῆσαι εἰς ἀνθρώπων ἤθη.
15 Cf. Laws 968 Aπρὸς ταῖς δημοσίαις ἀρεταῖς, Phaedo 82 A and supra, Vol. I. on 430 C. Brochard, “La Morale de Platon,”L’Année Philosophique, xvi. (1905) p. 12 “La justice est appelée une vertu populaire.” This is a little misleading, if he means that justice itself is “une vertu populaire.”
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