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[566a] banishes and slays and hints at the abolition of debts and the partition of lands1—is it not the inevitable consequence and a decree of fate2 that such a one be either slain by his enemies or become a tyrant and be transformed from a man into a wolf?” “It is quite inevitable,” he said. “He it is,” I said, “who becomes the leader of faction against the possessors of property.3” “Yes, he.” “May it not happen that he is driven into exile and, being restored in defiance of his enemies, returns a finished tyrant?” “Obviously.” “And if they are unable [566b] to expel him or bring about his death by calumniating him to the people, they plot to assassinate him by stealth.” “That is certainly wont to happen,” said he. “And thereupon those who have reached this stage devise that famous petition4 of the tyrant—to ask from the people a bodyguard to make their city safe5 for the friend of democracy.” [566c] “They do indeed,” he said. “And the people grant it, I suppose, fearing for him but unconcerned for themselves.” “Yes, indeed.” “And when he sees this, the man who has wealth and with his wealth the repute of hostility to democracy,6 then in the words of the oracle delivered to Croesus,“By the pebble-strewn strand of the Hermos Swift is his flight, he stays not nor blushes to show the white feather.””Hdt. 1.55 “No, for he would never get a second chance to blush.” “And he who is caught, methinks, is delivered to his death.” “Inevitably.” “And then obviously that protector does not lie prostrate, “‘mighty with far-flung limbs,’”Hom. Il. 16.776 in Homeric overthrow,7 but [566d] overthrowing many others towers in the car of state8 transformed from a protector into a perfect and finished tyrant.” “What else is likely?” he said.

“Shall we, then, portray the happiness,” said I, “of the man and the state in which such a creature arises?” “By all means let us describe it,” he said. “Then at the start and in the first days does he not smile9 upon all men and greet everybody he meets and deny that he is a tyrant, [566e] and promise many things in private and public, and having freed men from debts, and distributed lands to the people and his own associates, he affects a gracious and gentle manner to all?” “Necessarily,” he said. “But when, I suppose, he has come to terms with some of his exiled enemies10 and has got others destroyed and is no longer disturbed by them, in the first place he is always stirring up some war11 so that the people may be in need of a leader.” “That is likely.”

1 The apparent contradiction of the tone here with Laws 684 E could be regarded mistakenly as another “disharmony.” Grote iii. p. 107 says that there is no case of such radical measures in Greek history. Schmidt, Ethik der Griechen, ii. p. 374, says that the only case was that of Cleomenes at Sparta in the third century. See Georges Mathieu, Les Idées politiques d’Isocrate, p. 150, who refers to Andoc.De myst. 88, Plato, Laws 684, Demosth.Against Timocr. 149 (heliastic oath), Michel, Recueil d'inscriptions grecques, 1317, the oath at Itanos.

2 Cf. 619 C.

3 Cf. 565 A.

4 Cf Herod. i. 59, Aristot.Rhet. 1357 b 30 ff. Aristotle, Pol. 1305 a 7-15, says that this sort of thing used to happen but does not now, and explains why. For πολυθρύλητον Cf. Phaedo 100 B.

5 For the ethical dative αὐτοῖς cf. on 343 Vol. I. p. 65, note c.

6 For μισόδημος cf. Aristoph.Wasps 474, Xen.Hell. ii. 3. 47, Andoc. iv. 16, and by contrast φιλόδημον, Aristoph.Knights 787, Clouds 1187.

7 In Hom. Il. 16.776 Cebriones, Hector's charioteer, slain by Patroclus,κεῖτο μέγας μεγαλωστί, “mighty in his mightiness.” (A. T. Murray, Loeb tr.)

8 For the figure Cf. Polit. 266 E. More common in Plato is the figure of the ship in this connection. Cf. on 488.

9 Cf. Eurip.I. A. 333 ff., Shakes.Henry IV.Part I. I. iii. 246 “This king of smiles, this Bolingbroke.”

10 Not “foreign enemies” as almost all render it. Cf. my note on this passage in Class. Rev. xix. (1905) pp. 438-439, 573 B ἔξω ὠθεῖ, Theognis 56, Thuc. iv. 66 and viii. 64.

11 Cf. Polit. 308 A, and in modern times the case of Napoleon.

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