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Hereupon the Peloponnesians sail homewards, and the democratic party in Corcyra, falling upon its defenceless enemies, perpetrates with all the horrors of hate and revenge a terrible butchery among them. τῆς νυκτὸς εὐθὺς κατὰ τάχος: the sarcastic tone noted at c. 29. 2; 31. 11, is perhaps observable here also. To flee with fifty-three ships at the approach of sixty is not very creditable.— τῆς νυκτός, παρὰ τὴν γῆν: these two circumstances may account for Alcidas not having been seen by Eurymedon, even if the Athenian fleet when announced was advancing from Leucas. See B. Schmidt, p. 78. —3. ὑπερενεγκόντες . . . τὰς ναῦς: sc. with the aid of ὁλκοί, such as are mentioned c. 15. 7. τὸν ἰσθμόν is governed by ὑπερ-, τὰς ναῦς by the verb. Kühn. 411, 7. Cf. iv. 8. 8; viii. 7. 7. This isthmus (cf. iv. 8. 8), which then connected the island with the mainland, had been previously cut through by the Corinthians (Strab. p. 452 c). But the canal (ὁ Διόρυκτος, Polyb. v. 12) became filled with sand (Plin. Hist. Nat. iv. 1. 2, 5), and remained so until the Romans again opened it for a short time. Liv. xxxiii. 17. See Oberhummer, Akarnanien im Alterthum, p. 7 ff., and Partsch, Die Insel Leukas, p. 2 ff. (Petermann's Mitteilungen, Ergänzungsheft 95).— ὅπως . . . ὀφθῶσιν: see App. on c. 80. 8.— 4. ἀποκομίζονται: sc. to Cyllene or Gytheum; and thus ended the activity of the Peloponnesian fleet for this year. λαβόντες: bracketed by Cl., following Kr., on the ground that it was prob. a gloss of εἴ τινα λάβοιεν that crept into the text. But it is better to retain it, with St., for even though ii. 67. 21 οἱ δὲ λαβόντες ἐκόμισαν ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας may not be quite parallel, since there λαβόντες means having received, yet cf. Ar. Vesp. 1379 ἄγειν ταύτην λαβών, Lysist. 1115, 1128; Thesm. 212; Ran. 888.— τοὺς Μεσσηνίους: i.e. the 500 whom Nicostratus had brought with him, c. 75. 3. The object in bringing them into the city was doubtless merely the intimidation of the oligarchs; that they participated directly in the butchery that followed, as Cl. thought, seems probable neither from Thuc.'s narrative nor in itself. See B. Schmidt, p. 78.—8. ἃς ἐπλήρωσαν: cf. c. 80. 4. — ἐς τὸν Ὑλλαϊκὸν λιμένα: the ships had been therefore in the harbour near the agora (c. 72. 10), which was esp. exposed to the attacks of enemies from without, since its entrance was not narrow like that of the Hyllaic harbour. They were ordered round to the Hyllaic harbour in order that the oligarehs on them might be cut off from their friends in the neighbourhood of the agora (c. 72. 9) and in the Heraeum. The matter is intelligible only if a νεώριον be assumed also for the Hyllaic harbour. See on c. 74. 6.—9. ἐν ὅσῳ: while, as in viii. 61. 5; 87. 23.— εἴ τινα λάβοιεν: the oligarchs perhaps tried to conceal themselves.—10. ἐκ τῶν νεῶν: these words, which belong to ἐκβιβάζοντες, imply that it was those that had remained in the city who were killed before this.— ὅσους ἔπεισαν: cf. c. 80. 4.—11. ἀπεχρῶντο: for which the most and best Mss. have ἀπεχώρησαν, is sufficiently protected by the remark of ancient grammarians (Suidas, Zonaras, and in Bekker's Anecd. p. 423 Θουκυδίδης ἀπεχρῶντο ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀνῄρουν), and is indispensable to the sense; for those on the ships were certainly killed immediately, not, as Kr. thinks, first tried along with the fifty ἱκέται. Besides, τε introduces the next clause (ἐς τὸ Ἥραιόν τε) as the third act in this drama of horrors. ἀποχρῆσθαι meaning to kill is supported only by a citation from Aristophanes in Suidas (s.v. ἀπεχρήσαντο) and Pollux ix. 153 (τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπεχρήσαντο). But the analogy of διαχρῆσθαι (c. 36. 15; i. 126. 38, where some Mss. have ἀπεχρήσαντο; vi. 61. 17; Antiph. i. 23; Hdt. i. 24. 12; 110. 18) and καταχρῆσθαι (Hdt. i. 82. 42; 117. 5; iii. 36. 28; iv. 146. 7; vi. 135. 9, and late writers) is in its favour. The strong expression doubtless indicates the feeling of horror of the historian. The portion of the demos to be understood as subj. of ἀπεχρῶντο was of course different from that implied in ἀπέκτεινον. See B. Schmidt, p. 79.—11. ἐς τὸ Ἥραιόν τε: cf. c. 79. 4. The particle is similarly placed also in vii. 84. 15 ἐς τὰ ἐπὶ θάτερά τε. Kühn. 520, N. 5.—13. ἔπεισαν καὶ κατέγνωσαν: aors. to indicate summary process. That the sentence was immediately executed is plain from the following ὡς ἑώρων τὰ γιγνόμενα (partic. impf.). In all the rest of the description of the horrors, the impf. (ἀπέκτεινον, ἀπεχρῶντο, ἀπήγχοντο, ἀνηλοῦντο, ἐφόνευον, etc.) prevails, and hence in l. 15 διέφθειρον (three Mss.) is to be preferred to διέφθειραν, which most Mss. have, since there is no sufficient reason for the change of tense. ὡς ἑώρων τὰ γιγνόμενα: these words, which are suspected by Müller-Strübing, p. 602 f., are quite in order, if, with B. Schmidt, p. 42 and 78 f., a high site be assumed for the Heraeum.—15. αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ: emphatic combination. Cf. c. 98. 11; ii. 25. 18; v. 22. 2; 83. 4. See Herbst, Gegen Cobet, p. 58 ff.—16. ἀνηλοῦντο: —σφᾶς αὐτοὺς ἀνήλουν. Cf. iv. 48. 17. ἀναλοῦν, which Thuc. prefers to ἀναλίσκειν, is, like ἀποχρῆσθαι, unusual in this sense. Cf. Aesch. Agam. 570; Soph. O. T. 1174; Eur. El. 681. From c. 75. 23 ὁ δὲ δῆμος δείσας μή τι νεωτερίσωσιν κτἑ., it may be inferred that the ἱκέται had arms. ὁ Εὐρυμέδων: seems to have arrived during the first act of the horrors here related (l. 7 τὰς ναῦς . . . ἀπέκτεινον); hence the butchery of the oligarchs might be reckoned from his coming. Nicostratus prob. left Corcyra before the seven days ended (cf. c. 75. 9, and see on l. 6).—19. ἐφόνευον: slaughtered, as in i. 50. 3; vii. 29. 20; 85. 8; viii. 95. 29. It is classed by Rutherford (New. Phryn. p. 15) among the old Ionisms that survived in Tragedy. It occurs, in this sense, also in legal language in Plato (Legg. 871 d; 873 c), and is freq. in late writers.— τὴν μὲν αἰτίαν . . . καταλύουσιν: i.e. λόγῳ μὲν αἰτιώμενοι τοὺς τὸν δῆμον καταλύοντας. The following clause, if regular, would have been ἔργῳ δὲ ἀποκτείνοντες καί τινας κτἑ., but there is a transition to the finite verb, owing to the moral significance of the individual occurrences. For similar change of const., cf. c. 87. § 1; ii. 47. § 3; vii. 47. § 2. “Though they asserted that they wished to bring to trial only the subverters of the democracy, yet many were killed also from other motives.” καταλύειν τὸν δῆμον also v. 76. 5; viii. 54. 17; 86. 8; καταλύειν τὴν δημοκρατίαν, viii. 47. 17. καταλύειν is the technical word for this idea in Attic. Cf. Ar. Eccles. 453; Andoc. i. 95; Lys. xiii. 4; Dem. xviii. 182. —22. ὑπὸ τῶν λαβόντων: sc. τὰ χρήματα, τῶν δανεισαμένων, Schol. So also most editt. explain, doubtless correctly, since thus the baseness of the motive is made manifest. Bm. renders by their captors. πᾶσά τε ἰδέα: as in c. 83. 1; 98. 15; 112. 23; ii. 19. 1; 77. 7; vii. 29. 26. For τε in a résumé, see on c. 40. 16. —23. ἐν τῷ τοιούτῳ: “in times like those just described.” ὁ τοιοῦτος as in iv. 56. 4; vii. 81. 13. See on c. 43. 12. —24. οὐδὲν ὅ τι οὐ: as in vii. 87. 14, 25, for the fuller form οὐδέν ἐστιν ὅ τι οὐ. Cf. ii. 62. 13. H. 1003 a; Kr. Spr. 51, 10, 11; Kühn. 555, 5. See on c. 39. 38.— καὶ ἔτι περαιτέρω: in this hyperbolical expression the adv. has the force of an adj., as in Ar. Thesm. 705 δεινὰ πράγματ̓ ἐστὶ καὶ περαιτέρω, Av. 416 ἄπιστα καὶ πέρα κλύειν, Soph. Epig. (ap. Stob. Flor. 73, 51) ὦ πᾶν σὺ τολμήσασα καὶ πἑρα γυνή. Cf. Sall. Jug. 44 cuncta fuere et alia amplius.—25. πρὸς αὐτοῖς: see on c. 70. 18.—26. περιοικοδομηθέντες: = ἀποικοδομηθέντες (i. 134. 13; vii. 73. 8). Found only here in Thuc. Cf. Hdt. vii. 60. 11; Xen. Cyrop. i. 4. 11.— ἐν τοῦ Διονύσου τῷ ἱερῷ: see on c. 70. 16. The site of this sanctuary is unknown. See B. Schmidt, p. 33. 82, 83. General reflections on the fearful results of party struggles, which the war produced everywhere in the Hellenic world. οὕτως ὠμή: pred. to προυχώρησε, as in i. 23. 4 μέγα to προύβη.—ἡ στάσις: Kr.'s restoration of the art., which could easily have been lost after ὠμή, seems necessary, since the reference is to the sedition just described.— ἔδοξε μᾶλλον: Schol. μᾶλλον ὠμὴ ἔδοξεν ἤπερ ἐγένετο.—2. ἐν τοῖς πρώτη: see on c. 17. 2.—3. ὡς εἰπεῖν: so always in Thuc., not ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, as in Plato and the orators. GMT. 777, 1; H. 956. See on i. 1. 9. Cf. i. 138. 18; vii. 49. 18.— τὸ Ἑλληνικόν: as in c. 57. 11; i. 1. 6; 6. 23, including all Hellenic states, even those outside of Greece proper.— ἐκινήθη: as in iv. 76. 21, of profound political disturbance. See on κίνησις, i. 1. 8.— διαφορῶν οὐσῶν . . . τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους: “since everywhere the chiefs of the democracy and of the oligarchy were struggling, the one to bring in the Athenians, the other the Lacedaemonians.” Jow. ἐπάγεσθαι in loose connexion with διαφορῶν οὐσῶν expresses the result. This verb is regularly used of inviting strangers into one's country. See on i. 3. 8.—5. καὶ ἐν μὲν εἰρήνῃ . . . ἐπορίζοντο: and while, in time of peace, they would have no pretext, and were not even ready to call them in, being at war, those on either side who wished a revplution easily procured allies both to harass their enemies and to acquire for themselves power from the same source. See App.— 6. οὐκ ἂν ἐχόντων: gen. abs. without expressed subj., as often in Thuc. when it can be easily supplied from the context. GMT. 848; H. 972 a. See on c. 34. 17.— ἑτοίμων: for omission of ὄντων, cf. v. 64. 18, and see on c. 69. 4.—7. πολεμουμένων δέ: corresponds to ἐν μὲν εἰρήνῃ. Instead of a gen. abs. answering to οὐκ ἂν ἐχόντων . . . οὐδ̓ ἑτοίμων, the const. changes to a finite verb, ἐπορίζοντο. St. compares vi. 69. 9. Kr. Spr. 69, 16, 4.— καὶ ξυμμαχίας ἅμα: depends on αἱ ἐπαγωγαί, but is thus emphatically placed as containing the main idea and in order that the ξυμμαχία may appear as the natural result of the state of war (πολεμουμένων). ξυμμαχία, “help of allies,” as i. 32. 2; 42. 12; vi. 73. 5.—8. ἑκατέροις: (i.e. the democrats and the oligarchs) restricted by τοῖς νεωτερίζειν τι βουλομένοις, and having therefore the force of ἑκατέρων. But Steup, who considers the Athenians and Lacedaemonians to be the subj. of πολεμουμένων, holds that, ἑκατέροις also refers to those states. In that case, ἑκατέροις would be dat. of agent with ἐπορίζοντο (see on c. 64. 15) and τοῖς . . . βουλομένοις dat. of advantage.— τῇ τῶν ἐναντίων κακώσει καὶ . . . προσποιήσει: the two substs. with common art. closely connected. See on c. 2. 6; 56. 7. The dats. express purpose, as πλεονεξίᾳ, l. 39; ὠφελίᾳ, l. 38; i. 123. 10; ξυμμαχίᾳ, vi. 33. 9. προσποίησις from the mid. προσποιεῖσθαι, which is used esp. of the acquisition of allies (i. 8. 16; ii. 30. 6; iv. 77. 13). The verbal subst. governs σφίσιν αὐτοῖς. Kr. Spr. 48, 12, 4; Kühn. 424, 1. Cf. i. 63. 9; 73. 1.—9. αἱ ἐπαγωγαί: the unusual subst. used on account of ἐπάγεσθαι above. See on c. 100. 6. Cf. v. 82. 24 ἐπαγωγὴ τῶν ἐπιτηδείων. καὶ ἐπέπεσε kte(.: and so befell, etc., i.e. after outside help was called in.—11. κατὰ στάσιν: see on c. 2. 10; 68. 17.— γιγνόμενα μὲν καὶ αἰεὶ ἐσόμενα:=οἷα γίγνεται καὶ αἰεὶ ἔσται. Cf. Dio C.'s imitation (xxxvi. 20) οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν ὅτε ταῦτ̓ οὐκ ἐγένετο, οὐδ̓ ἂν παύσαιτό ποτε ἕως ἂν ἡ αὐτὴ φύσις ἀνθρώπων ᾖ, Tac. Hist. iv. 74 vitia erunt, donec homines. For other passages expressing the same sentiment, see notes of Pp. and Bl. Steup thinks the simple γιγνόμενα with αἰεὶ ἐσόμενα κτἑ. strange, and suggests that ἐσόμενα may be an interpolation, comparing iv. 132. 2 βουλόμενοι μὲν καὶ αἰεί, παρεστηκὸς κτἑ.—12. τῶν ἀνθρώπων: so with two Mss. (Vat. and H.) for ἀνθρώπων of the rest. Cf. i. 20. 2; 77. 15; 140. 2; ii. 61. 19, etc. But the art. is wanting in i. 41. 11; iv. 97. 13; v. 111. 12, and even in the imitation of Dio C. just quoted.—13. μᾶλλον: in a higher degree, referring to χαλεπά. Supply γιγνόμενα. For adv. and adj. (ἡσυχαίτερα) thus co-ord. as preds. to verb, see on c. 4. 4. Cf. Xen. Anab. iv. 7. 23 ἐπειδὴ δὲ βοὴ πλείων τε ἐγίγνετο καὶ ἐγγύτερον.— καὶ ἡσυχαίτερα: for καί, cf. iv. 63. 10 τὸν εὖ καὶ κακῶς δρῶντα.—τοῖς εἴδεσι: in their manifestations.— διηλλαγμένα: pass. only here in Thuc. Bl. cites Dion. H. xxiii. 17 ταῖς φωναῖς αὐτῶν διηλλαγμέναις. for the act. in same sense, see on c. 10. 5.—14. ὡς: according as. Cf. c. 45. 18.— τῶν ξυντυχιῶν: of conditions of life, circumstances, as in c. 45. 18.— ἐφιστῶνται: present themselves, occur. Schol. πίπτωσι. Cf. Soph. O. R. 776 πρίν μοι τύχη τοιάδ̓ ἐπέστη, Eur. Hipp. 819 ω τύχα, ὥς μοι βαρεῖα καὶ δόμοις ἐπεστάθης, Med. 331 ὅπως ἂν παραστῶσιν τύχαι.—ἐν μὲν γὰρ εἰρήνῃ κτἑ.: in proof of the asserted influence of changed circumstances.—15. ἀγαθοῖς πράγμασιν: rebus secundis; the phrase is prob. not found elsewhere.—16. τὰς γνώμας: convictions, as in i. 140. 4. See Introd. to Book I. p. 32.— ἐς ἀκουσίους ἀνάγκας πίπτειν: “to fall under the dominion of imperious necessities, in which free choice is impossible.” Cf. l. 18 βίαιος διδάσκαλος, and see on i. 84. 24.—17. ὑφελών: see on c. 13. 32.— τὴν εὐπορίαν τοῦ καθ̓ ἡμέραν: the comfortable provision of daily life. As τοῦ καθ̓ ἡμέραν is unusual for τῶν καθ̓ ἡμέραν, Kr. would insert, with the Schol., βίου before βίαιος.—18. βίαιος διδάσκαλος: Bl. compares, for the sentiment, Theophyl. Hist. i. 15 (p. 63 Bk.) ὁ πόλεμος . . . τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων κακῶν ἀρχηγέτης καὶ διδάσκαλος αὐτοδίδακτος.—πρὸς τὰ παρόντα: instead of the dat. Cf. viii. 57. 11 ἐπανισοῦν τοὺς Ἕλληνας πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Cf. i. 140. 4; vi. 34. 47.—19. τὰς ὀργάς: dispositions, the old, chiefly poetic sense. Schol. νῦν ὀργὰς τὰς γνώμας καὶ τοὺς τρόπους ἐκάλεσεν. Cf. i. 130. 11; 140. 3; viii. 83. 16; Hdt. iii. 131. 3; vi. 128. 5; Theog. 963. See Diener, De Serm. Thuc. p. 15 ff.; C. F. Smith, Proc. Amer. Phil. Assoc. xxii. p. xix. ἐστασίαζέ τε οὖν kte(.: οὗν resumptive and τε correl. to following καί. Therefore both the cities were disturbed by factions, and those which revolted later, through hearing of what had been done before, went much further still in the extravagance of their revolutionary spirit, both in the overingenuity of their enterprises and the strangeness of their revenges. With the sentiment, cf. Eur. Hipp. 939 ὁ δ᾽ ὕστερος τοῦ πρόσθεν εἰς ὑπερβολὴν πανοῦργος ἔσται.—ἐστασίαζε τὰ τῶν πόλεων: cf. Dem. xix. 320 ἐστασίαζε τὰ τῶν Θετταλῶν. τὰ τῶν πόλεων is a periphrasis for αἱ πόλεις. See on c. 59. 7. Steup would have expected here ἐστασίαζε τὰ τῶν πόλεων τῶν πολλῶν, or ἐστασίαζε τὰ τῶν πόλεων ἐπὶ πολύ (cf. l. 2 ὕστερόν γε καὶ πᾶν ὡς εἰπεῖν τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν ἐκινήθη). Hampke conjec tured (Ztschr. f. d. Gymnasialw. xxxii. p. 396 f.) τὰ τῶν πολλῶν.—20. τὰ ἐφυστερίζοντά νου: αἱ πόλεις αἱ ὕστερον τῶν ἄλλων στασιάζουσαι, Schol.— 21. πολύ: Schol. κατὰ πολύ. Cf. Xen. Anab. iii. 4. 33 πολὺ περιῆσαν. Kr. Spr. 48, 15, 13. For the text, see App. —22. τὰς διανοίας: see Introd. to Book I. p. 32.— περιτεχνήσει: κακουργίᾳ, περινοίᾳ, Schol. Only here in Thuc.; elsewhere only in Dio C. (xlvi. 19; liii. 11). See on c. 43. 9.—23. ἀτοπίᾳ: τῷ ἀήθει, τῇ δεινότητι, Schol. ἀξίωσιν: value, or generally received meaning; the objective meaning, as opp. to τῇ δικαιώσει, subjective interpretation. This meaning of ἀξίωσις seems to be rare. Bl. cites Dion. H. Ant. vi. 73 τὴν ἀξίωσιν τῶν δικαίων ἀναστρέφοντες, Heliod. Aeth. viii. 4 ἡ τῶν ὀνομάτων ἀξίωσις.—24. ἐς τὰ ἔργα: in relation to things, belonging to ἀξίωσιν. ὀνόματα and ἔργα in the same relation also vi. 78. 19.— τῇ δικαιώσει: “as they thought fit.” τῇ ἑαυτῶν δικαίᾳ κρίσει, Schol. The noun is Thucydidean (i. 141. 6; iv. 86. 21; v. 17. 11). See on i. 141. 6. As to Thuc.'s fondness for verbal nouns in -σις, see on c. 23. 27.—25. ἐνομίσθη: single characteristic examples are expressed by (empirical) aors. (cf. προσετέθη in l. 28; ἐγένετο, l. 37); general conduct by impfs. (cf. ἐπῃνεῖτο in l. 35; ἐκρατύνοντο, l. 40, etc.— φιλέταιρος: i.e. ready to sacrifice one's self for one's friends; the political signifi-cation of ἑταῖροι, as it appears below in ἑταιρία and ἑταιρικόν, being esp. prominent. Found only here in Thuc. —26. εὐπρεπής: fair-sceming. Cf. c. 11. 10; 38. 12; i. 39. 6.— τὸ δὲ σῶφρον τοῦ ἀνάνδρου πρόσχημα: cf. Plato Rep. 560 d σωφροσιύνην ἀνανδρίαν καλοῦντές τε καὶ προπηλακίζοντες.—27. καὶ τὸ . . . ἀργόν: for the sentiment, cf. Eur. Oed. (frg. 556) πότερα γενέσθαι δῆτα χρησιμώτερον συνετὸν ἄτολμον ἢ θρασύν τε κἀμαθῆ;—ἐπὶ πᾶν ἀργόν: cf. vii. 67. 18 ἀργότεραι ἐς τὸ δρᾶν τι.—τὸ δ᾽ ἐμπλήκτως ὀξὺ ἀνδρὸς μοίρᾳ προσετέθη: inconsiderate rashness was held to be the part of a man. For ἐμπλήκτως, cf. Soph. Aj. 1358; Plato Gorg. 482 a. ἀνδρὸς μοίρᾳ προσετίθη—ἐν ἀνδρὸς μοίρᾳ (or ἐν μέρει, Dem. ii. 14; iii. 31) ἐτίθη.—28. ἀσφαλείᾳ δὲ τὸ ἐπιβουλεύσασθαι . . . εὔλογος: prudent reflcrion a specious pretext for yielding, lit. in security to take further thought, a specious pretext for turning away. So St. explains; but see App. ἐνομίσθη is to be supplied here, as well as with the following predicates (πιστός and ὕποπτος). See on c. 107. 25. ἀσφαλείᾳ adv., as in c. 56. 20. ἐπιβουλεύσασθαι, further deliberate, reflect. ἐπι- as in ἐπιγνῶναι, c. 57. 6; i. 70. 8; ii. 65. 48. See on ἐπιταλαιπωρεῖν, i. 123. 3. ἀποτροπή not act., as in c. 45. 31, but belonging rather to the mid. ἀποτρέπεσθαι (ii. 40. 17; iv. 59. 7; viii. 10. 10), as ἀποστροφή (iv. 76. 25) to ἀποστρέφεσθαι, ἐπαγωγή (l. 9; 100. 6) to ἐπάγεσθαι, ἀποκομιδή (i. 137. 26) to ἀποκομίζεσθαι, ξυναλλαγή (l. 45) to ξυναλλάσσεσθαι. (St.) ὁ μὲν χαλεπαίνων πιστὸς αἰεί: the hot-headed man was always trusted. Rauchenstein (Philol. xxxv. p. 590) conjectures ὁ μὲν πάντ̓ ἐπαινῶν, Hampke ibid. p. 398 ὁ μὲν χαλεπὰ ἐπαινῶν.—31. ἐπιβουλεύσας τυχών: ἐπιβουλεύσας is subord. to τυχών (for which St. and Widmann read τυχών τε, after Dion. H. p. 889), if one had succeeded in any plot. For the paronomasia, ἐπιβουλεύσας, προβουλεύσας, see on c. 39. 10; i. 33. 26.— ὑπονοήσας ἔτι δεινότερος: if any one had suspected a plot (he was considered) still more clever. τις is understood with ὑπονοήσας as with προβουλεύσας in the next line. δεινότερος=ξυνετώτερος.— 32. αὐτῶν: i.e. τοῦ τε ἐπιβουλεύειν καὶ ὑπονοεῖν.—33. τῆς τε ἑταιρίας διαλυτὴς κτἑ.: sc. because he took no part in the plots of his faction against their opponents.— ἐκπεπληγμένος: smitten with fear of, pass. with acc. as in v. 10. 30; vi. 11. 14; 33. 16. All other examples of this const. seem to be Ionic or Tragic. Cf. Hdt. ix. 82. 11; Soph. Aj. 33; El. 1045; Phil. 1026. See Proc. Amer. Phil. Assoc. xxii. p. xviii.—34. ἁπλῶς τε: Haase's conjecture (Lucubr. p. 75) for ἁπλῶς δέ. See on c. 40. 16; iv. 64. 11; vi. 37. 18.— τὸν μέλλοντα κακόν τι δρᾶν: refers, as τὸν μὴ διανοούμενον in the next clause, to an associate, not an opponent.—35. ὁ ἐπικελεύσας τὸν μὴ διανοούμενον: with both parties. κακόν τι δρᾶν is understood. Kr. Spr. 55, 4, 11. ἐπικελεύσας, as Xen. Cyrop. iii. 3. 41, a strengthened κελεύσας, ἐπι- having the same force as in ἐπιβουλεύσασθαι, Cf. ἐπιδιώκειν, c. 33. 14; ἐπιχρῆσθαι, i. 41. 4. τὸ ξυγγενὲς . . . ἐγένετο: the tie of blood was weaker than that of party. τοῦ ἑταιρικοῦ, as in viii. 48. 18.—37. διὰ τὸ ἑτοιμότερον εἶναι: (sc. τὸ ἑταιρικόν) i.e. because restrained by no scruples. On account of the harshness of the ellipsis, Badham conjectured, and v. H. writes, ἀνετοιμότερον. If any change is to be made, Steup would rather insert τὸ ἑταιρικόν after ἑτοιμότερον.—38. οὐ γὰρ . . . πλεονεξίᾳ: for such associations were not formed in accordance with the established laws for the (public) good, but contrary to the established laws for private advantage.— ὠφελίᾳ: correctly restored by St., for ὠφελίας of the Mss., since it is evidently opp. to πλεονεξίᾳ, as μετὰ τῶν κειμένων νόμων to παρὰ τοὺς καθεστῶτας. The emendation is supported not only by Valla's rendering of the passage, non enim huiusmodi conventus per leges ob utilitatem, sed contra leges ob avaritiam fiebant, but by Dion. H.'s paraphrase (p. 891), οὐ γὰρ ἐπὶ ταῖς κατὰ νόμον ὠφελίαις αἱ τῶν ἑταιριῶν ἐγίγνοντο σύνοδοι, ἀλλ̓ ἐπὶ τῷ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους τι πλεονεκτεῖν. ὠφελίᾳ and πλεονεξίᾳ are dats. of purpose. See on — 39. ξύνοδοι: Schol. συστάσεις καὶ ἑταιρίαι. Cf. Plut. Ages. 32 ἐμηνύθη συνωμοσία καὶ σύνοδος ἀνδρῶν Σπαρτιατῶν ἐπὶ πράγμασι νεωτέροις εἰς οἰκίαν κρύφα συνερχομένων.—40. ἐς σφᾶς αὐτούς: i.e. ἐς ἀλλήλους. G. 996; H. 686 b.— οὐ τῷ θείῳ νόμῳ: on the decay of awe of the divine as a symptom of demoralization in society, see Introd. to Book I. p. 28.— ἐκρατύνοντο: see on c. 18. 7. ἀπὸ τῶν ἐναντίων . . . γενναιότητι: i.e. fair words (here definite proposals) were not relied on; they were accepted, if the momentary superiority of opponents (εἰ προύχοιεν, sc. οἱ ἐναντίοι) made this necessary, but only guardedly, not in a spirit of generous confidence. For ἀπό with the pass., see on c. 36. 24. Steup considers the subj. of προύχοιεν to be the same as that of ἐνεδέχοντο, comparing c. 83. 6 κρείσσους δὲ ὄντες κτἑ. —42. ἔργων φυλακῇ: cf. τῶν ἔργων τῆς ἐπιμελείας, c. 46. 19; ἔργῳ φυλασσομένη, vi. 40. 17.—43. γενναιότητι: like τὸ γενναῖον, c. 83. 2.— ἀντιτιμωρήσασθαι: though the simple verb expresses the idea of retaliation, this is intensified by ἀντι-.—45. ξυναλλαγῆς: so far removed from ὅρκοι that the connexion is rather loose, with a view to reconciliation.— πρὸς τὸ ἄπορον: in view of their perplexity; more expressive than κατά τι ἄπορον, i. 136. 6. πρός as in πρὸς τὸ παρόν, c. 40. 35; ii. 22. 1; v. 9. 14.— ἑκατέρῳ διδόμενοι: for the dat. of agent with pass., see on c. 64. 15.—46. οὐκ ἐχόντων: without expressed subj. as in l. 6 above, but αὐτῶν is easily supplied from ἑκατέρῳ, as they had no power from any other source. Hampke (ibid. p. 400) refers οὐκ ἐχόντων to ὅρκοι, having authority for no other reason, sc. than their present helplessness. Steup, not satisfied with any interpretation that has been offered, suggests that the words have crept into the text from a marginal explanation of πρὸς τὸ ἄπορον ἑκατέρῳ διδόμενοι.—47. ἐν τῷ παρατυχόντι: as in v. 38. 3, “in any event that might chance.” παρα- with the force of αἰεί, of what presents itself from time to time; hence the sing. Cf. i. 122. 6 πρὸς τὸ παρατυγχάνον.—ὁ φθάσας θαρσῆσαι: he who first made bold, i.e. without the help of oaths. As Thuc. nowhere else construes the inf. with φθάνειν, θαρσήσας was rather to be expected. Cf. c. 23. 21; 83. 11; 89. 11; 112. 5; ii. 91. 5; iv. 4. 11; v. 3. 5, 8; 10. 13; vi. 61. 11; 97. 11; vii. 6. 16; 42. 19; viii. 12. 3; 92. 3. The const. with inf. is rare in Attic, more freq. in late writers. Kr. Spr. 56, 5, 5. The inf. is doubtless used here to avoid the concurrence of two partics.— ἄφρακτον: (sc. τὸν ἐναντίον) unguarded, off his guard. Cf. c. 39. 8; vi. 33. 14.—48. διὰ τὴν πίστιν: i.e. because his enemy relied on the oath, and so was ἄφρακτος.—ἀπὸ τοῦ προφανοῦς: adv., as in i. 35. 17; 66. 7; ii. 93. 15; v. 9. 13. The phrase seems to be peculiar to Thuc. Cf. ἐκ τοῦ προφανοῦς, c. 43. 10; 109. 10. —49. καὶ τό τε ἀσφαλὲς ἐλογίζετο . . . προσελάμβανε: and he reckoned not only the safety (of such a course), but also that proving superior by means of deceit he was winning besides the prize of shrewdness. λογίζεσθαι as in i. 76. 13; ii. 89. 24.—50. ξυνέσεως ἀγώνισμα: cf. c. 37. 27 ξυνέσεως ἀγών. —ῥᾷον δ᾽ οἱ πολλοὶ . . . ἀγαθοί: “men in general, when dishonest, more easily gain credit for eleverness, than, when simple, for goodness.” ῥᾷον κέκληνται, lit. are more readily called. This is the view of Arn., Jow., and St. But Cl. and Steup follow Kr. in rendering, prefer to be called, which makes τῷ μὲν αἰσχίνονται . . . ἀγάλλονται a mere repetition. The pf. κέκληνται as in ii. 37. 4; v. 9. 35. GMT. 49 a; H. 849. Steup brackets ὄντες, on the ground that predicates follow καλεῖσθαι without ὤν, and sees in it a marginal explanation of some one who mistook κακοῦργοι as equiv. to κακοῦργοι ὄντες. —51. κακοῦργοι ὄντες δέξιοι . . . ἀμαθεῖς ἀγαθοί: observe the chiasmus.— 52. τῷ μὲν . . . ἀγάλλονται: chiastic with regard to the preceding. “They are ashamed of simple goodness, but glory in clever dishonesty.” Jow. Cf. Plut. de Garrul. 4 ἥδιόν γε τοῖς πονηροῖς ὁμιλοῦσιν ἐπιδεξίοις, ἢ χρηστοῖς ἀδολέσχαις. For the order ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ, see on c. 61. 6. αἴτιον: used as pred. subst., as often, without regard to gender of subj. See on i. 11. l. G. 925; H. 617. Madvig (Adv. i. p. 317) and Hampke (ibid. p. 400 f.) would bracket αι<*>ον, Hude (p. 113 sq.) both αἴτιον and ἡ. H. Weil (Rev. de Philol. N. S. ii. p. 92) conjectures πάντων δ᾽ αὐτῶν ἀρχὴ ἡ λίαν πλεονεξία καὶ φιλοτιμία.—ἀρχή: Schol. ἡ ἐπιθυμία τοῦ βούλεσθαι ἄρχειν. Cf. gloria=gloriac cupiditas. As to the order, ἀρχὴ ἡ διὰ πλεονεξίαν, cf. i. 41. 15 φιλονικίας ἕνεκα τῆς αὐτίκα, 75. 1 προθυμίας ἕνεκα τῆς τότε, 77. 9 δυνάμει τῇ διὰ τὴν ἀρχήν.—54. ἐκ δ᾽ αὐτῶν: i.e. τῆς πλεονεξίας καὶ φιλοτιμίας.—καὶ ἐς τὸ φιλονικεῖν καθισταμένων: with indef. pers. subj. (as in l. 6). When men were once embarked in strife.—55. τὸ πρόθυμον: sc. ἦν, sprang zealous party-spirit.— οἱ γὰρ . . . προστάντες: aor., those who had become leaders in the cities.— μετ̓ ὀνόματος εὐπρεποῦς: Sallust's (Cat. 38) honestis nominibus.—56. πλήθους τε . . . προτιμήσει: explanation of μετ̓ ὀνόματος . . . εὐπρεποῦς, the dat. προτιμήσει being a variation of μετά with the gen. The one party laid stress on the designation πλήθους ἰσονομία πολιτική (the political equality of the many), rather than the objectionable δημοκρατία,—the other on ἀριστοκρατία σώφρων (a moderate aristoeracy), rather than the hated ὀλι γαρχία. On the ἰσονομία πολιτική, see Schoemann. Antiq. Jur. p. 95; Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, i. p. 315.— 57. ἀριστοκρατίας σώφρονος: the ὀλίγοι were given to boasting of their σωφροσύνη. Cf. c. 65. 16; viii. 53. 21; 64. 21.— τὰ μὲν κοινὰ . . . ἐποιοῦντο: in name devoted to the public interests they made them prizes (for which they strove). τὰ κοινά, as in i. 120. 4; 141. 31, obj. of θεραπεύοντες, as well as of ἄθλα ἐποιοῦντο.— 59. ἀγωνιζόμενοι . . . μείζους: for the sentiment, cf. Sall. Jug. 42. 4.— περιγίγνεσθαι: for the inf. dependent on ἀγωνιζόμενοι, see on c. 38. 10.—60. ἐπεξῇσαν τὰς τιμωρίας: pursued revenges. Cf. c. 40. 28; v. 100. 5. Hampke's conjecture (ibid. p. 401 f.) ἐπεξήνεγκαν, increased, seems unnecessary.— ἔτι μείζους: pred., still greater, sc. than the δεινότατα τολμήματα.— οὐ μέχρι . . . προτιθέντες: not stretching their revenges up to the limits of right and the advantage of the state, i.e. not setting this limit to them. So Cl. explains, retaining the Vulg. But the signification of προτιθέναι which he gives seems to be without parallel. The ordinary meaning of προτιθέντες, when referring to punishments, i.e. proponentes, does not suit the verb ἐπεξῇσαν. The reading προστιθέντες (Dion. H.) though slightly supported, is adopted by Kr., St., and Bm., and gives the best sense, inflicting punishments (or revenges). Cf. c. 39. 38.—62. ἐς δὲ τὸ ἑκατέροις που αἰεὶ ἡδονὴν ἔχον ὁρίζοντες: limiting them according to what at any time afforded pleasure to either party. ἔχον = παρέχον. See on c. 53. 12; i. 97. 13.—63. μετὰ ψήφου ἀδίκου καταγνώσεως: καταψηφιζόμενοι ἀδίκως, Schol. For the order of the words, cf. ii. 39. 20 μετὰ νόμων τὸ πλεῖον ἢ τρόπων ἀνδρείας. See on c. 23. 27; 46. 18. ψήφου ἀδίκου is subjective (not as c. 16. 2 ἀσθενείας obj.) gen. Cf. i. 87. 17 ἡ διαγνώμη αὕτη τῆς ἐκκλησίας. A fraudulent count is prob. not meant, but a vote influenced by hate and thirst for revenge.— ἢ χειρὶ κτώμενοι τὸ κρατεῖν: the combination of a prepositional phrase with a partic. const. is freq. Cf. c. 25. 9; 42. 23; i. 39. 2; ii. 89. 22.— χειρί: by force, only here. Cf. ii. 13. 19 διὰ χειρὸς ἔχειν.—64. ἑτοῖμοι ἦσαν: were ready, i.e. unscrupulous as to the means employed (ἢ μετὰ ψήφου ἀδίκου καταγνώσεως ἢ χειρί).— τὴν αὐτίκα φιλονικίαν: also i. 41. 15.— ἐκπιμπλάναι: explere, as ἀποπλῆσαι, vii. 68. 5.—65. ὥστε . . . ἄμεινον ἤκουον: εὐπρεπείᾳ δὲ λόγου, as antithesis to εὐσεβείᾳ μέν, is the ground of ἄμεινον ἤκουον. “On piety neither side placed any value, but by fair pretences those had a better name who succeeded in accomplishing some odious purpose.” Many editors construe εὐπρεπείᾳ λόγου with the rel. clause (see on c. 39. 5; i. 5. 11).— ἐνόμιζον: = ἐχρῶντο, with dat. also i. 77. 26; ii. 38. 3; Hdt. ii. 50. 14. Kühn. 425, 5.—66. ἐπιφθόνως: as in i. 75. 3; Xen. Cyrop. vii. 5. 37.— ἄμεινον ἤκουον: i.e. were more praised for plausibility of speech than for piety.—67. τὰ μέσα τῶν πολιτῶν: οἱ μηδετέρῳ μέρει προστιθέμενοι, Schol. Cf. viii. 75. 4 οἱ διὰ μέσου, iv. 83. 9 ἑτοῖμος ὢν Βρασίδᾳ μέσῳ δικαστῇ ἐπιτρέπειν, Dio C. xliv. 29 καὶ οἵτω καὶ τὰ μέσα τῶν πολιτῶν στασιάζειν παράγεται.— 68. ὅτι οὐ ξυνηγωνίζοντο: i.e. because they did not furnish the aid demanded.— φθόνῳ τοῦ περιεῖναι: = ὅτι ἐφθονοῦντο διὰ τὸ περιεῖναι. Kr. compares Eur. I. T. 352 οἱ δυστυχεῖς γὰρ τοῖσιν εὐτυχεστέροις αὐτοὶ κακῶς πράξαντες οὐ φρονοῦσιν εὖ. — διεφθείροντο: for the pl. verb with neut. pl. subj., see G. 899, 2; H. 604 a; Kr. Spr. 63, 2, 1; Kühn. 365 a. Cf. iv. 88. 6; vii. 57. 64.
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