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In the battle near Sybota the Corcyraeans conquer on their left wing; on their right and in the centre, where they are being beaten, the 10 Attic ships vainly come to their aid.

ξυμμίξαντες: of hostile meeting, c. 50. 7; 62. 21; v.9.26; 65. 11; vii.6.9; viii.25.19; 104. 14; of friendly conjunction, ii.84.34; iii.110.4; vii.26.4.

ἐπειδὴ...ἤρθη : gives the time of ξυμμίξαντες, not of ἐναυμάχουν (impf. as c. 26. 23). To ἤρθη, which implies the raising a flag or some such signal (Schol. σύμβολά τινα περὶ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς μάχης δεικνύμενα) is opposed κατεσπάσθη, c. 63. 14.

τῷ παλαιῷ κτἑ.: cf. c. 10. 32. This want of naval skill is shown in the large number of variously armed soldiers on board (ἐπιβάται). “The number of combatants assigned to a ship was diminished in the same degree in which the art of fighting at sea was improved.” Böckh, Publ. Econ. p. 383. While in early times the number was probably 30 (see on c. 29. 4), “in the Peloponnesian war only 10 heavy-armed epibatae used to be put on board of a trireme.” Ibid. p. 384.

ἦν τε: and so (c. 4. 5) it actually was, as might be expected from the large fighting force. ἦν placed first, as in c. 25. 23.

τῇ μὲν τέχνῃ...οὖσα : the reason of the fight being καρτερά is expressed in varied form (cf. 8); “the battle was hotly contested, not so much from the skill displayed, as because it was more like a battle on land.” οὐχ ὁμοίως=ἧσσον. Cf. ii.60.21; v.11.13. τὸ πλέον= μᾶλλον. Cf. 12; c. 69. 32; 74. 20; 81. 6; ii.89.21, etc.

ἐπειδὴ προσβάλοιεν: this is to be preferred to προσβάλλοιεν of most Mss., as expressing the repetition of rapid shocks. So in vii.70.31. On the other hand, 15, πιέζοιντο, of longer enduring pressure.

ἀπελύοντο: see on c. 18. 28. Cf. vii.70.31.— ὑπό τε πλήθους...πιστεύοντες : the reasons expressed first by a subst., then by a partic., as in 6. “They did not readily get clear of one another, partly from the number and throng of the ships, and still more because they trusted for victory to the hoplites on the decks.”

καταστάντες: when they had got into position. Cf. c. 59. 7; ii.1.3; iii.92.24; v.4.15; more literally in iii.86.19; iv.14.23; 75. 8.

διέκπλοι: the favourite Attic manœuvre of breaking through an enemy's line, and so taking the separated portions at a disadvantage to attack them on flank or rear; first mentioned by Hdt. vi.12.3; viii.9.9. —οὐκ ἦσαν: see on c. 2. 5. Cf. ii.89.35; vii.36.22; 70. 26.

παραγιγνόμεναι: “the durative tense of vision: ‘rallying to the Corcyraeans if they saw them pressed at any point.’” B. L. G. The subj. αἱ Ἀττικαὶ νῆες is narrowed in the second clause to οἱ στρατηγοί, by whom the order to attack would be given.

See App. τὴν πρόρρησιν: see c. 45. 6; the subst. of προειπεῖν, only here in this sense.

σποράδας: in disorder, pred. to καταδιώξαντες.

ἐπεκβάντες : landing in pursuit. Cf. viii.105.3.— 21. ἐρήμους:=ἐρήμους καταλαβόντες. ἐρῆμος is of two terminations also in ii.4.19; iii.22.13; 67. 14; 106. 4; of three, in ii.32.3; 81. 7; iv.26.13; vi.61.37.—τὰ χρήματα: in the general sense of property. Cf. iii.74.10; vi.97.27.

οἱ Κορίνθιοι καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι: an expression adapted to the diverse fortunes of the allied forces (though in c. 48. 9 and c. 49. 17 οἱ Κορίνθιοι is given alone, as the leading power) which is subj. of ἐνίκων, 24, as well as of ἡσσῶντο, 23, but restricted in each case by the local phrases ταύτῃ μέν and δὲ κτἑ. The particles τε καί have the effect of combining complements or opposites into an exhaustive whole; the second clause is here added (as Cl. says, almost as if it were parenthetical) to give the reverse side of the action expressed in the first. It is not necessary to bracket τε, or with St. to read τότε.

ἀπὸ ἐλάσσονος πλήθους : from a smaller number to begin with, i.e. 110 against 150. Cf. ii.65.7; viii.87.33.

μᾶλλον ἀπροφασίστως: i.e. than as in 15. But there are still two stages: (1) ἀπεχόμενοι . . . τινί, “so far as not actually to attack”; (2) ἐπεὶ δὲ . . . οἱ Κορίνθιοι, “as soon as the Corcyraeans began decidedly (λαμπρῶς, see on vii.55.1) to turn their backs.”

ἐγίγνετο: though found in only one Ms., the impf. is necessary here to represent the beginning of the flight, while the Corinthians ἐνέκειντο. So too P. and St. Cf. the impf. with κατὰ τάχος, iii.106.3; with θᾶσσον, iii.111.5; with διὰ τάχους, iii.109.20. Not till the rout is complete do we find c. 50. 1, τῆς τροπῆς γενομένης.

τότε δή : introduces the decisive moment with reference to the serious consequences of it. Cf. c. 58. 10; so οὕτω δή, c. 131. 8; ii. 12. 16.—ἔργου εἴχετο: put his hand to the work. Cf. c. 78. 8; ii.2.23; Hdt. viii.11.4.—ἤδη: emphasizes the critical instant. Cf. c. 18. 28.—καὶ διεκέκριτο οὐδὲν ἔτι: and no longer was any distinction maintained between the Corcyraeans who were declared enemies, and the Athenians who were nominal allies, of the Corinthians. See on c. 46. 1.

ξυνέπεσεν: impers., like a stronger ξυνέβη. Cf. iv.68.8.—ἐς τοῦτο ἀνάγκης: see on c. 5. 10. Cf. ἐς τοῦτο ξυμφορᾶς, iii.57.12; ἐς τοῦτο δυστυχίας, vii.86.25; ἐν τούτῳ παρασκευῆς, ii.18.1; ἐς τοῦτο ἀνάγκης, Plat. Theaet. 170 d; εἰς τοῦθ᾽ ὕβρεως, Dem. IV. 37; XXII. 16.—ἐπιχειρῆσαι: with dat. in proper sense; cf. iii.94.23; vi.48.12;=ἐς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν, c. 52. 13.

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