Chapter 7: Franklin County.This county is bounded on the north by Windham County, Vermont, and a part of Cheshire County, New Hampshire; east by Worcester County, south by Hampshire County, and west by the county of Berkshire. The surface of the county is elevated: the Green-Mountain range extends from north to south, presenting some of the wildest and most picturesque scenery in the State. The soil, however, broken by hills of no common height, is exceedingly fertile; its numerous valleys produce fine crops of grain and grasses; its mountain sides afford rich pasturage for cattle and sheep. The Connecticut River flows through its centre from north to south, and the Deerfield and Miller's Rivers pass through rich and beautiful valleys. It is a quiet, pastoral region, with here and there busy manufacturing towns. Greenfield is the shire town, and is widely known as one of the most beautiful of our New-England villages. The population of Franklin County in 1860 was 31,434, in 1865 it was 31,342, showing a decrease of 92 in the five years of the war. The population in 1870 was 32,635, which is an increase since 1865 of 1,292. The valuation of the county in 1860 was $12,448,961, in 1865 it was $13,048,120, which is an increase in five years of $599,259. The number of men which Franklin County furnished for the war, according to the returns made by the selectmen in 1866, was 3,159, which is about two hundred less than the actual number. Every town in the county furnished its full quota upon every call made by the President for men, and each had a surplus over and above all demands, which in the aggregate amounted to two hundred and seventy-nine men.  The amount of money raised and expended by all the towns in the county on account of the war, exclusive of State aid to soldiers' families, was $372,068.52. The amount of money raised and expended during the years of the war for State aid to the soldiers' families, and which was afterwards repaid to them by the Commonwealth, was $155,457.38, making the aggregate $527,526.90. The following is the war record of each town in the county:—
Josephus Crafts, A. Howes, Lorenzo Wait; in 1862, Josephus Crafts, Moses Cook, Darius Williams; in 1863, Josephus Crafts, Nathan Knowlton, A. Howes; in 1864, Nathan Knowlton, A. Howes, Josiah Cross; in 1865, Alvan Hall, Frederick C. Howes, Josiah Cross. The town-clerk during all the years of the war was Henry S. Ranney. The town-treasurer in 1861 was George G. Hall; in 1862, 1863, 1864, and 1865, Nelson Gardner. 1861. The first legal town-meeting, to act upon matters relating to the war, was held on the 6th of May, at which it was voted to pay all inhabitants of Ashfield who have enlisted, or who shall thereafter enlist, to the number of fifteen, twenty-six dollars a month while in the military service. November 29th, The selectmen were directed to pay State aid to the families of volunteers, as provided by law. 1862. August 2d, Voted, to pay a bounty of one hundred and fifty dollars to each volunteer who shall enlist for three years service before the 10th of the month, one hundred and twenty-five dollars to each who shall enlist between the 10th and the 20th, and one hundred to each who shall enlist between the 20th and the 30th of the month, to the number of eighteen, when mustered in and credited to the quota of the town. August 15th, The bounty of one hundred and fifty dollars was continued until the 20th of the month. September 9th, Voted, to pay a bounty of one hundred dollars to volunteers for nine months service. October 15th, The selectmen  were directed to continue the payment of State aid to the families of deceased volunteers the same as was paid when the soldiers were living. November 4th, The selectmen were directed to pay volunteers for nine months, who went into camp, but who were not required to fill the quota of the town, each the sum of twenty-five dollars ‘for their lost time and other expenses.’ 1863. January 17th, The selectmen were directed to pay nine hundred dollars to volunteers who have entered the military service as substitutes ‘to relieve the town from a draft.’ April 6th, The selectmen were authorized to continue the payment of State aid to the families of soldiers. 1864. April 29th, Four thousand two hundred and fifty dollars were raised to procure a portion of the quota of the town from the Commonwealth. June 4th, The selectmen were directed to enlist twenty men ‘as soon as possible,’ to answer for any future call of the President up to March, 1865. 1865. March 6th, Voted, to pay a bounty of one hundred and twenty-five dollars each to five re-enlisted veterans. May 10th, Voted, to raise four thousand five hundred dollars to refund to individuals money they had subscribed in 1864 for recruiting purposes. 1866. March 5th, Six hundred and fifty dollars were appropriated to erect a monument in honor of the men of Ashfield ‘who had sacrificed their lives to sustain the Government against the slave-holders' Rebellion.’ Ashfield furnished one hundred and twenty-four men for the war, which was a surplus of sixteen over and above all demands. One was a commissioned officer. The whole amount of money appropriated and expended by the town on account of the war, exclusive of State aid, was twenty-two thousand two hundred and seventy-nine dollars ($22,279.00). The amount of money raised and expended during the years of the war for State aid to soldiers' families, and which was afterwards repaid by the Commonwealth, was as follows: In 1861, $132.42; in 1862, $1,180.24; in 1863, $1,702.20; in 1864, $1,166.76; in 1865, $337.20. Total amount, $4,518.82.
 P. L. Cushman, Samuel J. Lyons, Imla K. Brown; in 1862, P. L. Cushman, Justin M. Slate, Gaius J. Green; in 1863, P. L. Cushman, Justin M. Slate, John F. Hale; in 1864, John F. Hale, Justin M. Slate, Bryant S. Burrows; in 1865, John F. Hale, Hymen B. Butler, Bryant S. Burrows. The town-clerk and town-treasurer during all these years was Silas N. Brooks. 1861. No legal town-meeting appears to have been held during this year, to act upon matters relating to the war. 1862. July 22d, A meeting was held, at which Dr. William Dwight presented resolutions which were adopted. The first expressed confidence in the President, and fully indorsed his policy to suppress ‘the most atrocious rebellion of modern times;’ second, ‘that we lay upon the altar of our common country the lives of our sons and the treasure of our people, in defence of the Constitution and the Union;’ third, ‘that the exigencies of the hour call upon old and young, rich and poor alike, to rally round the old flag of our fathers.’ Voted, to pay a bounty of one hundred dollars to each volunteer who shall enlist to the credit of the town, to make up the eleven persons called for. The selectmen were authorized to borrow money sufficient to pay the bounty, provided that a guarantee fund be raised by subscription to indemnify the selectmen should the act be pronounced illegal. The fund was raised at once, and a sufficient number of young men volunteered to fill the quota. August 23d, Voted, to pay a bounty of one hundred dollars to nine-months volunteers. The selectmen and treasurer were authorized to borrow the money and recruit the men. They were also directed to petition the Legislature to legalize the votes of the town in regard to borrowing money. 1863. July 23d, A meeting was held, to see if the town would appropriate and pay three hundred dollars to each of the sixteen men who had been drafted. The town voted to ‘pass over the article.’ 1864. April 16th, The town voted to appropriate six hundred  and fifty dollars to refund to citizens money subscribed and paid by them to aid recruiting; also, eight hundred and seventy-five dollars to pay bounties to volunteers under ‘the existing call.’ Several other meetings were held during the year, at which money was appropriated to pay bounties to recruits and aid to their families. The amount of bounty to be paid each volunteer was fixed at one hundred and twenty-five dollars. Bernardston furnished about one hundred and four men for the war, which was a surplus of seventeen over and above all demands. One was a commissioned officer. The whole amount of money appropriated and expended by the town for war purposes, exclusive of State aid, was six thousand six hundred and ninety-four dollars and eighty-three cents ($6,694.83). The amount of money raised and paid by the town during the years of the war for State aid to the families of volunteers, and which was afterwards repaid by the Commonwealth, was as follows: In 1861, $46.00; in 1862, $625.88; in 1863, $1,245.76; in 1864, $1,155.55; in 1865, $900.00. Total amount, $3,973.19.