XXXIII. East Virginia—Bull Run.
- Ft. Monroe -- great Bethel -- Alexandria occupied -- Vienna -- Patterson's advance -- his flank movement to Charlestown -- Johnston rashes to Manassas -- Gen. Sanford's testimony -- McDowcll advances to Centervills -- Blackburn's Ford -- Bull Run -- Union defeat and flight -- causes thereof -- Gen. Scott's plan -- criticised by Hon. E. P. Blair -- consequences of our failure.
if the North had been, or at least had seemed, obstinately apathetic, because skeptical as to the probability or the imminence of Civil War, it was fully and suddenly undeceived by the developments that swiftly followed the bombardment of Fort Sumter, but especially by the occurrences in Baltimore and the attitude of Maryland. For a few weeks, all petty differences seemed effaced, all partisan jealousies and hatreds forgotten. A few “ conservative” presses sought to stem the rushing tide; a few old Democratic leaders struggled to keep the party lines distinct and rigid; but to little purpose. Twelve States, whose Legislatures happened to be sitting in some part of April or May, 1861, tendered pecuniary aid to the Government, amounting, in the aggregate, to nearly Nineteen Millions of Dollars; while some Five Millions were as promptly contributed, in the cities and chief towns of the North, to clothe and equip volunteers. Railroads and steamboats were mainly employed in transporting men and munitions to the line of the Potomac or that of the Ohio. Never before had any Twenty Millions of people evinced such absorbing and general enthusiasm. But for the deplorable lack of arms, Half a Million volunteers might have been sent into camp before the ensuing Fourth of July. President Lincoln issued, on the 27th of April, a proclamation announcing the blockade of the coast of Virginia and North Carolina; due evidence having been afforded that Virginia had formally and North Carolina practically adhered to the Rebellion. Some weeks were required to collect and fit out the vessels necessary for the blockade of even the chief ports of the Rebel States; but the month of May1 saw this undertaking so far completed as to make an entrance into either of those ports dangerous to the blockade-runner. On the 3d, the President made a further call for troops — this time requiring 42,000 additional volunteers for three years; beside adding ten regiments to the regular army — about doubling its nominal strength. A large force of volunteers, mainly Pennsylvanians, was organized at Chambersburg, Pa., under the command of Major-Gen. Robert Patterson, of the Pennsylvania militia; while Gen. Butler, having completed the taming of Baltimore, by planting batteries on the highest points and sending a few of her more audacious traitors to Fort McHenry, was made2 a Major-General, and placed in command of a Department composed of tide-water Virginia with North Carolina. George B. McClellan, John C. Fremont (then in Europe), and John A. Dix had already3 been appointed Major-Generals in the regular army--Gen.