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[328]

XXII. Secession.


the choice of Presidential Electors, which formerly took place at the discretion of the several States within a limited range, is now required, by act of Congress, to be made on the same day throughout — namely, on the Tuesday next succeeding the first Monday in November. This fell, in 1860, on the 6th of the month; and it was known, before that day had fully expired, that Abraham Lincoln had been clearly designated by the People for their next president, through the choice by his supporters of a majority of the whole number of Electors. Every Free State but New Jersey had chosen the entire Lincoln Electoral ticket; and in New Jersey the refusal of part of the Douglas men to support the “Fusion” ticket (composed of three Douglas, two Bell, and two Breckinridge men), had allowed four of the Lincoln Electors to slip in over the two Bell and the two Breckinridge Electors on the regular Democratic ticket. The three Lincoln Electors who had to confront the full vote of the coalesced anti-Republican parties were defeated by about 4,500 majority. And, although this was not ascertained that night, nor yet the fact that California and Oregon had gone with the other free States, yet there were 169 Lincoln Electors chosen (out of 303) outside of these three States; with, these, Mr. Lincoln had 180, to 123 for all others. Of these, Breckinridge had 72; Bell 39 (from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee); and Douglas barely 12--those of Missouri (9) and 3, as aforesaid, from New Jersey. But, though nowhere in the Electoral, Mr. Douglas was second in the Popular, vote, as will be seen by the following table, wherein the “Fusion” vote is divided between the parties which contributed to it, according to the best estimate that can now be made of their strength respectively:

Free states.

States. Lincoln. Douglas. Breckinridge. Bell.
Maine 62,811 26,693 6,368 2,046
New Hampshire 37,519 25,881 2,112 441
Massachusetts 106,353 34,372 5,939 22,331
Rhode Island 12,244 14,000 21,000 2,707
Connecticut 43,972 15,522 14,641 3,291
Vermont 33,808 6,849 218 1,969
New York 353,804 3203,329 450,000 550,000
New Jersey 58,324 630,000 730,000 82,801
Pennsylvania 268,030 978,871 10100,000 12,776
Ohio 231,610 187,232 11,405 12,194
Indiana 139,033 115,509 12,295 5,306
Illinois 172,161 160,215 2,404 4,913
Michigan 88,480 65,057 805 405
Wisconsin 86,110 65,021 888 161
Minnesota 22,069 11,920 748 62
Iowa 70,409 55,111 1,048 1,748
California 39,173 38,516 34,334 6,817
Oregon 5,270 3,951 5,006 183
 
Total Free States 1,831,180 1,128,049 279,211 130,151

Slave states.

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Maryland 2,294 5,966 42,482 41,760
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