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[6] The cause of the pleasure felt by those who insult is the idea that, in ill-treating others, they are more fully showing superiority. That is why the young and the wealthy are given to insults; for they think that, in committing them, they are showing their superiority. Dishonor is characteristic of insult; and one who dishonors another slights him; for that which is worthless has no value, either as good or evil. Hence Achilles in his wrath exclaims: “ He has dishonored me, since he keeps the prize he has taken for himself,1

” and “ [has treated me] like a dishonored vagrant,2

1 Hom. Il. 1.356.

2 Hom. Il. 9.648. μετανάστης, lit. “one who changes his home,” used as a term of reproach.

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