So then the necessary parts of a speech are the
statement of the case and proof. These divisions are appropriate to every
speech, and at the most the parts are four in number—exordium,
statement, proof, epilogue; for refutation of an opponent is part of the proofs,
and comparison is an amplification of one's own case, and therefore also part of
the proofs; for he who does this proves something, whereas the exordium and the
epilogue are merely aids to memory.
Aristotle in 23 Volumes, Vol. 22, translated by J. H. Freese. Aristotle. Cambridge and London. Harvard University Press; William Heinemann Ltd. 1926.
The Annenberg CPB/Project provided support for entering this text.
Purchase a copy of this text (not necessarily the same edition) from
An XML version of this text is available for download,
with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted
changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.