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But though at the present time only the people of the island Cephallenia are called Cephallenians, Homer so calls all who were subject to Odysseus, among whom are also the Acarnanians. For after saying,“but Odysseus led the Cephallenians, who held Ithaca and Neritum with quivering foliage
1(Neritum being the famous mountain on this island, as also when he says,“and those from Dulichium and the sacred Echinades,
2Dulichium itself being one of the Echinades; and“those who dwelt in Buprasium and Elis,
3Buprasium being in Elis; and“those who held Euboea and Chalcis and Eiretria,
4meaning that these cities were in Euboea; and“Trojans and Lycians and Dardanians,
5meaning that the Lycians and Dardanians were Trojans)—however, after mentioning "Neritum, he says,“and dwelt in Crocyleia and rugged Aegilips, and those who held Zacynthos and those who dwelt about Samos, and those who held the mainland and dwelt in the parts over against the islands.
6By "mainland,"7 therefore, he means the parts over against the islands, wishing to include, along with Leucas, the rest of Acarnania as well,8 concerning which he also speaks in this way,“twelve herd on the mainland, and as many flocks of sheep,
9perhaps because Epeirotis extended thus far in early times and was called by the general name "mainland." But by "Samos" he means the Cephallenia of today, as, when he says,“in the strait between Ithaca and rugged Samos;
10for by the epithet he differentiates between the objects bearing the same name, thus making the name apply, not to the city, but to the island. For the island was a Tetrapolis,11 and one of its four cities was the city called indifferently either Samos or Same, bearing the same name as the island. And when the poet says,“for all the nobles who hold sway over the islands, Dulichium and Same and woody Zacynthos,
12he is evidently making an enumeration of the islands and calling "Same" that island which he had formerly13 called Samos. But Apollodorus,14 when he says in one passage that ambiguity is removed by the epithet when the poet says“and rugged Samos,
15showing that he meant the island, and then, in another passage, says that one should copy the reading,“Dulichium and Samos,
16instead of "Same," plainly takes the position that the city was called "Same" or "Samos" indiscriminately, but the island "Samos" only; for that the city was called Same is clear, according to Apollodorus, from the fact that, in enumerating the wooers from the several cities, the poet17 said,“from Same came four and twenty men,
18and also from the statement concerning Ktimene,“they then sent her to Same to wed.
19But this is open to argument, for the poet does not express himself distinctly concerning either Cephallenia or Ithaca and the other places near by; and consequently both the commentators and the historians are at variance with one another.

1 Hom. Il. 2.631

2 Hom. Il. 2.625

3 Hom. Il. 2.615

4 Hom. Il. 2.536

5 Hom. Il. 8.173

6 Hom. Il. 2.633

7 "epeirus" (cp. "Epeirus").

8 On Homer's use of this "poetic figure," in which he specifies the part with the whole, cp. 8. 3. 8 and 1. 2. 23.

9 Hom. Od. 14.100

10 Hom. Od. 4.671

11 i.e., politically it was composed of four cities.

12 Hom. Od. 1.245

13 Hom. Il. 2.634

14 See Dictionary in Vol. I.

15 Hom. Od. 4.671

16 Hom. Od. 1.246

17 In the words of Telemachus.

18 Hom. Od. 16.249

19 Hom. Od. 15.367

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