all these instruments
it is true are benefited by the persons who use them, but there can be no friendship, nor
justice, towards inanimate things; indeed not even towards a horse or an ox, nor yet
towards a slave as slave. For master and slave have nothing in common: a slave is a living
tool, just as a tool is an inanimate slave.
there can be no friendship with a slave as slave, though there can be as human being: for
there seems to be some room for justice in the relations of every human being with every
other that is capable of participating in law and contract, and hence friendship also is
possible with everyone so far as he is a human being.
Hence even in tyrannies there is but little scope for friendship and justice between
ruler and subjects; but there is most room for them in democracies, where the citizens
being equal have many things in common. 12.
All friendship, as we have said,1
involves community; but the friendship between relatives and between members of a
comradeship may be set apart as being less in the nature of partnerships than are the
friendships between fellow-citizens, fellow-tribesmen, shipmates, and the like; since
these seem to be founded as it were on a definite compact. With the latter friendships may
be classed family ties of hospitality between foreigners.
Friendship between relatives itself seems to include a variety of species, but all appear
to derive from the affection of parent for child. For parents love their children as part
of themselves, whereas children love their parents as the source of their being.
Also parents know their offspring with more
certainty than children know their parentage; and progenitor is more attached to progeny
than progeny to progenitor, since that which springs from a thing belongs to the thing
from which it springs—for instance, a tooth or hair or what not to its
owner—whereas the thing it springs from does not belong to it at all, or only in
a less degree. The affection of the parent exceeds that of the child in duration also;
parents love their children as soon as they are born, children their parents only when
time has elapsed and they have acquired understanding,2
or at least perception.
why parental affection is stronger in the mother. Parents then love their children as
themselves （one's offspring being as it were another self—other because
）; children love their parents as the
source of their being; brothers love each other as being from the same source, since the
identity of their relations to that source identifies them with one another, which is why
we speak of ‘being of the same blood’ or ‘of the same
stock’ or the like; brothers are therefore in a manner the same being, though
embodied in separate persons.
But friendship between
brothers is also greatly fostered by their common upbringing and similarity of age;
‘two of an age agree,’5
and ‘familiarity breeds fellowship,’ which
is why the friendship between brothers resembles that between members of a comradeship.