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[336] Vs. 336-393. Nestor's speech and Agamemnon's reply.

καί: also, with reference to the preceding speakers.

Γερήνιος: so called from the Messenian town where Nestor was bred and which was his place of refuge when Heracles sacked Pylos.—“ἱππότα: ἱππότης, ἱππεύς”, knight; but he was not mounted on horseback like the latter “ἱππῆς”.

[337] ἀγοράασθε: with lengthened initial vowel, see § 41 g.—This reproach, though addressed to all the Greeks, is directed only against those who sympathize with Thersites in their longing to return. Nestor speaks more vehemently than Odysseus who had prepared the way with arguments. —For the brief comparison, see § 2 h.

[338] πολεμήια ἔργα: periphrasis for “πόλεμος”, see § 2 s; cf. “θαλάσσια ἔργα ε” 67.

[339] πῇ δὴ βήσεται: a rhetorical question, cf. “Ἕκτορ, πῇ δή τοι μένος οἴχεται Ε 472, Θ 229, Ν” 219 f., 24.201. “What will become of compacts if no one thinks of keeping them?”

συνθεσίαι τε καὶ ὅρκια: i.e. compacts sworn at sacrifices, here referring to the solemn sacrifice at Aulis. Hence Dido says non ego cum Danais Troianam exscindere gentem | Aulide iuravi Verg. Aen. iv. 425 f. Odysseus called it only an “ὑπόσχεσις”, v. 286.

ἡμῖν: ethical dat.

[340] “ἐν πυρὶ κτλ”.: ironical wish in his indignation. “Let all be thrown into the flames, as worthless.”

ἐν πυρί: cf. 5.215, where the archer Pandaros, in vexation, vows to break his bow and throw it into the fire, as useless.

341 = 4.159.

σπονδαὶ ἄκρητοι: libations to the gods with unmixed wine, see on 3.270; although no wine was drunk unmixed with water.—δεξιαί”.: see on 1.54, i.e. pledges given by the right hand.

ἐπέπιθμεν: plpf. with out variable vowel, for “ἐπεποίθειμεν”, see § 31 c.

[342] αὔτως: without change, vainly, cf. v. 138; explained by what follows.

μῆχος: way of relief, from this contest of words to come to deeds and the conquest of Troy.

[344] Ἀτρεΐδη, σὺ δέ: as 1.282.

ἔτι: const. with “ἄρχευε”. “In the future as in the past.”—“ἔχων κτλ”.: holding firmly to thy determination, sc. to capture Troy. Here begins the direct exhortation to Agamemnon to seize again with decision the reins of his authority.

[346] ἔα φθινύθειν: let them perish!

ἕνα καὶ δύο: for the idiomatic use of “καί”, cf. 1.128, v. 303, 3.363; see § 3 s. He intentionally depreciates the number of the renegades and mentions no names.

Ἀχαιῶν: part. gen. with “τοί”.

[347] νόσφιν βουλεύωσι: “plan apart from us, separating their cause from ours, like Thersites.”

ἄνυσις . . . αὐτῶν: parenthetical, connected with the preceding by the antithesis between “βουλεύωσι” and “ἄνυσις”.

αὐτῶν: neut., of the plans (“βουλεύματα”) implied in “βουλεύωσι”.

[348] πρὶν ἰέναι: depends on “βουλεύωσι”. For “πρίν, πρίν”, see on 1.98.

Διός: by prolepsis connected with “γνώμεναι”, and supplied in thought for “ὑπόσχεσις”. For the gen. with “γνώμεναι”, cf. “ὡς γνῶ χωομένοιο Δ 357, γνωσόμεθ̓ ἀλλήλων καὶ λώιον ψ” 109 we shall know each other still better.

[349] εἴ τε, εἴ τε: indir. questions, as 1.65.

καὶ οὐκί: cf. v. 238.

[350] φημί: maintain, assert.

οὖν: at all events. This particle is not freq. in Homer; it occurs about 60 times in Iliad and Odyssey.

κατανεῦσαι: intr., gave a promise; see on 1.514.

[351] ἤματι τῷ ὅτε: closely connected, as a standing formula; as v. 743, “Γ 189, Ε 210, Ζ” 345.

νηυσὶν ἐν ἔβαινον: cf. vs. 510, 619; “Ἴλιον εἰς ἐύπωλον ἔβη κοίλῃς ἐνὶ νηυσίν β 18, ἐς Τροίην ἀναβήμεναι α” 210 embark and set sail for Troy, “*<*>´ιλιον εἰσανέβαινον β” 172.

[352] Ἀργεῖοι: for the position, see § 1 h.

φέροντες: cf. v. 304.

[353] ἀστράπτων: as if “ὅτι κατένευσε” “Κρονίων” had preceded; an anacoluthon caused by the intervening vs. 351 f. A more violent anacoluthon is 3.211.

ἐπιδέξια: on our right, i.e. on the propitious side, cf. 12.239 f., Od. 2.154.

ἐναίσιμα: its contrary is “παραίσια Δ” 381.

φαίνων: interpretation of “ἀστράπτων”, cf. “Κρονίδης ἐνδέξια σήματα φαίνων ἀστράπτει Ι” 236 f., “Ζεὺς δὲ μεγάλ̓ ἔκτυπε σήματα φαίνων φ” 413. For the chiastic order of words, cf. 1.443, 558 f.

[355] “πρὶν κτλ”.: i.e. before the capture of Troy. The women and children of a captured city were treated as slaves, the men were killed; cf. “ἐκ πόλιος” (sc. of the Cicones) “δ̓ ἀλόχους καὶ κτήματα πολλὰ λαβόντες δασσάμεθα ι” 41 f., “πόρθεον, ἐκ δὲ γυναῖκας ἄγον καὶ νήπια τέκνα”, | “αὐτούς τε” (the men) κτεῖνον ρ 433 f.

τινά: in a collective sense, referring to each individual, as is also “Τρώων ἀλόχῳ”.

[356] 356 = v. 590.

τίσασθαι: chiastic with “κατακοιμηθῆναι”, with which it is coincident. The Trojans shall be repaid, like for like.—“Ἑλένης ὁρμήματα κτλ”.: the longings and sighs of Helen, i.e. those which she felt and uttered. The poet attributes to Nestor a knowledge of Helen's repentance (see on 3.173) and earnest longing to return to Greece (see 3.139 f., and Helen's words “ἤδη μοι κραδίη τέτραπτο νέεσθαι ἂψ οἰκόνδ̓, ἄτην δὲ μετέστενον, ἣν Ἀφροδίτη δῶχ̓, ὅτε μ̓ ἤγαγ̓ ἐκεῖσε φίλης ἀπὸ πατρίδος αἴης δ” 260 ff.). Paris is everywhere in Homer held chiefly responsible for Helen's fault, although she followed him willingly; no unattractive picture of her is presented. Vergil (Aen. vi. 511 ff.) represents Helen in a much more unpleasant light.

[357] ἐκπάγλως: as v. 223, cf. “αἰνῶς Γ” 158.

[358] ἁπτέσθω ἧς νηός: cf. v. 171; in a threatening tone. “Only let him prepare to depart! Instead of returning as he wishes, before the rest, he will find death here, before the rest.” For the imv., cf. “Α 302, Ζ 143, Θ” 18.— “ἐυσσέλμοιο κτλ”.: as v. 170.

[359] ὄφρα: in order that; of the natural consequence to be expected.

θάνατον: i.e. the punishment of death.

πότμον: cf. “μεθ̓ Ἕκτορα πότμος ἑτοῖμος Σ” 96 after thou hast killed Hector, death is ready for thee, “θάνον καὶ πότμον ἐπέσπον λ” 389.

[360] ἄναξ: Nestor turns to Agamemnon.

πείθεό τ̓ ἄλλῳ: this is the leading thought, as is shown by what follows, while “εὖ μήδεο” recapitulates vs. 344 f. “As thou must plan wisely thyself, so also follow another's advice.” cf. 9.100 ff.

[361] ἀπόβλητον: as 3.65. For the final syllable, long by position before a lost consonant, see § 41 m.

[362] κρῖνε: separate, i.e. place in position separately, as v. 446.

κατὰ φῦλα: distributive, by tribes, the principal division of each Greek people, cf. v. 668.

κατὰ φρήτρας: by clans, to which the separate families belonged.—cf. ‘According to your tribes, . . . according to the families thereof; and the family which the Lord shall take shall come by households.’ Joshua vii. 14.—This verse suggests such a catalogue as follows, vs. 484 ff.

[363] “ὡς φρήτρη κτλ”.: expression of reciprocity, instead of using “ἀλλήλοις”, cf. “οἷα φίλοι ξεῖνοι ξείνοισι διδοῦσιν α” 313.

[365] ὅς τε λαῶν: sc. “ἔῃσι”. The clause is rel., not interrogative.

[366] κατὰ σφέας: by themselves, separately; cf. 1.271.

[367] καὶ θεσπεσίῃ: whether thou hast failed not simply because of the inefficiency of his army, but also by decree of the gods; referring to vs. 111 ff.

ἀλαπάξεις: fut. since the success of this measure will not appear until in the future.

[368] : or only, as the Eng. idiom requires to correspond to “καί” above.

369-393. Agamemnon's speech. He calls them to battle.

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