, seemed to promise Ireland
of its woes; for the pale was broken down; and when the king, after a long interval, convened a parliament, it stood for the whole island.
But in the first place, the law tolerated only the Protestant worship; and when colonies were planted on lands of six counties in Ulster
escheated to the crown, the planters were chiefly Presbyterians from Scotland
, than whom none more deeply hated the Catholic
And next the war of chicane succeeded to the war of arms and hostile statutes.
Ecclesiastical courts wronged conscience; soldiers practised extortions; the civil courts took away lands.
Instead of adventurers despoiling the old inhabitants by the sword, there came up discoverers, who made a scandalous traffic of pleading the king's title against the possessors of estates to force them to grievous compositions,1
or to effect the total extinction of the interests of the natives in their own soil.2
This species of subtle ravage, continued with systematic iniquity in the next reign, and carried to the last excess of perfidy, oppression and insolence, inspired a dread of extirpation, and kindled the flames of the rising of 1641.
To suppress this rebellion, when it had assumed the form of organized resistance, large forfeitures of lands were promised to those who should aid in reducing the island.
had successively against them, the party of the king, the Puritan
parliament of England, the Scotch Presbyterians
among themselves, the fierce, relentless energy of Cromwell
, a unanimity of