or even if his own child, however young, should
profess to be a Protestant.
None but those who conformed to the established church were admitted to study at the universities, nor could degrees be obtained but by those who had taken all the tests, oaths, and declarations.
No Protestant in Ireland
might instruct a papist.1
Papists could not supply their want by academies and schools of their own;2
for a Catholic to teach, even in a private family or as usher to a Protestant, was a felony, punishable by imprisonment, exile, or death.
Thus ‘papists’ were excluded from all opportunity of education at home, except by stealth and in violation of law. It might be thought that schools abroad were open to them; but, by a statute of King William,3
to be educated in any foreign Catholic school was an ‘unalterable and perpetual outlawry.’4
The child sent abroad for education, no matter of how tender an age, or himself how innocent, could never after sue in law or equity, or be guardian, executor, or administrator, or receive any legacy or deed of gift; he forfeited all his goods and chattels, and forfeited for his life all his lands.
Whoever sent him abroad, or maintained him there, or assisted him with money or otherwise, incurred the same liabilities and penalties.
The crown divided the forfeiture with the informer; and when a person was proved to have sent abroad a bill of exchange or money, on him rested the burden of proving that the remittance was innocent, and he must do so before justices without the benefit of a jury.5