XXVIII. Sherman's Atlanta campaign.
- Strength of Sherman's and Jo. Johnston's armies -- Sherman flanks Johnston out of Dalton -- Hooker takes Resaca -- Jeff. C. Davis takes Rome -- fight at Pumpkin-vine creek -- at New hope Church -- at Dallas -- Allatoona Pass won -- Gen. Polk killed -- Rebel repulse at Kulp House -- Sherman assaults Kenesaw, and is repulsed with a loss of 3,000 -- flanks Johnston out of it -- passes the Chattahoochee -- Hood relieves Johnston -- Roasseau defeats Clanton -- Hood strikes our left heavily, and is repulsed -- strikes more heavily, and is badly worsted -- Stoneman's wretched raid to Macon -- he surrenders -- Hood strikes our right at Proctor's creek -- is badly beaten by Howard and Logan -- Kilpatrick's raid around Atlanta -- Sherman moves by his right behind at anta -- Howard beats Hardee at Jonesboroa -- J. C. Davis repeats the lesson -- Hood abandona Atlanta -- Sherman enters -- orders it cleared of inhabitants -- Pillow raids to Lafayette -- Wheeler to Dalton and through Southern Tennessee -- Jeff. Davis at Macon -- Hood flanks Sherman -- French attacks Allatoona -- Corse beats him off -- Hood crosses sand Mountain -- Thomas intrusted with the defense of Tennessee -- Sherman turns southward.
Gen. William T. Sherman, at the instance of Lt.-Gen. Grant, succeeded him in command of the military division of the Mississippi, embracing the four great departments of the Ohio, the Cumberland, the Tennessee, and the Arkansas. Receiving the order at Memphis,1 he repaired at once to Nashville, where he met the Lt.-General, and accompanied him so far as Cincinnati — Grant being then on his way to Washington to direct thenceforth our operations generally, but more especially those in Virginia. The plans of the superior were freely imparted to and discussed with his most trusted subordinate, ere they parted to enter respectively on their memorable campaigns against Richmond and Atlanta. Those campaigns were to be commenced simultaneously on the Rapidan and the Tennessee; and either movement to be pressed so vigorously, persistently, that neither of the Rebel main armies could spare troops to reenforce the other. When Sherman received2 his final instructions from Grant, it was settled that the campaign should open with May; and Gen. Sherman set forth3 accordingly from the Winter encampments of his forces around Chattanooga with an army barely short of 100,000 men4 of all arms, with 254 guns. It was far superior in every thing but cavalry to that which it confronted; Candy which, though estimated by Sherman at 55,000 to 60,000, probably numbered hardly more than 50,000.5 Johnston's army was organized in three corps, led by Hardee, Hood, and Polk. Sherman was from time to time reenforced, so as nearly to keep his original number good; but, as he advanced into Georgia, the necessity of maintaining his communications seriously reduced his force at the front. The country between Chattanooga and Atlanta is different from, but even more difficult than, that which separates Washington from Richmond. Rugged mountains, deep, narrow ravines, thick, primitive woods, with occasional villages and more frequent clearings, or irregular patches of cultivation, all traversed by mainly narrow, ill-made roads, succeed each other for some 40 miles; then intervenes a like distance of comparatively open, facile country, traversed by two considerable rivers; then another rugged, difficult region of mountains and passes reaches nearly to the Chattahoochce;