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“ [350] by which also all others that will have weights and measures of their own are to be made.”

1635: Voted that beaver-skins shall pass for ten shillings per pound.

Sept. 6, 1638: Mr. Cradock's accounts were audited in Boston.

Mr. Cradock's large outlay here, for all the accommodations requisite in building schooners and carrying on an extensive fishing business, made this region a trading centre. This first state of things continued till the withdrawal of Mr. Cradock's property, a few years after his death. The fishing business had been unsuccessful, and no one would continue it. The second period of trade in Medford reached (to speak in round numbers) from 1650 to 1750, during which time the manufacture of bricks was the most important and lucrative business pursued in the town. Other branches gradually increased.

1650 to 1700, there were no newspapers, no scientific lectures, no bank, no insurance-companies, no post-office, no stage-coaches, no good roads. Must not trade have been small?

The third period extended from 1750 to 1805. It began to be understood that Medford could furnish the staple articles of iron, steel, lead, salt, molasses, sugar, tea, codfish, chocolate, guns, powder, rum, &c., to country traders at a less price than they could get them at Boston. The distilling business and the manufacture of bricks required many lighters to go loaded to Boston: returning, they could bring back iron, steel, &c., at small cost. Medford, therefore, by its river, became a centre of supply to country traders from New Hampshire and Vermont. Supply begets market, as market begets supply. Traders here could purchase ivory-handled knives, spring-locks, brass-ware, tin, and pewter; of groceries, every thing but good tea and coffee; of dry goods, Kent linen, cotton, Irish stockings, Turkey mohair, red serge, broadcloth, muffs, ribbons, lace, silks, combs, napkins, yellow taffety, thread-lace, gloves, &c. Barter was the most common form of trade; and the exchanges were made with about half the care and selfishness so active at this day.

Pitch, tar, and turpentine were brought from the interior at an early date; but, in 1755, it became an active business. Casks for them were made in Medford; and the vote of the

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