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[52] These sufficed for all necessary uses during half a century. The road on the south bank of the river (South Street), connecting the brick-yards with the wharf and the lighters, was early opened. No new public roads were opened after these for nearly a hundred years.

Oct. 5, 1675, the town passes the following vote: To levy a fine of ten shillings upon any one who shall take a load of earth out of the public road. They also vote, that every man may work out his own highway tax, and they fix the prices for a day's labor of man, and of a man and team.

In 1715, Rev. Aaron Porter, Peter Seccomb, Peter Waite, Thomas Tufts, and Benjamin Parker, wish some enlargement of the road near the bridge, they being residents there; and the town direct a Committee to see about the matter. They fix the width of the road at the bridge at two rods and twelve feet; and report the road leading to Woburn wide enough already.

Feb. 20, 1746: Several gentlemen of Medford agree to open a road from the market to “Wade's bank, or Sandy bank” (Cross Street), and build a bridge over “Gravelly Creek.” It was done; and made a convenient way to the tide-mill. See further account under the head of “Mills.”

Medford Turnpike.--The construction of turnpikes in New England made an era in travelling and in speculations. Medford had long felt the need of a way to the metropolis more convenient for the transportation of heavy loads than that over Winter Hill. The first movement for a turnpike was made, about the year 1800, by citizens of Medford; and, in 1803, Benjamin Hall, John Brooks, Fitch Hall, Ebenezer Hall, 2d, and Samuel Buel, petitioned the Legislature for an act of incorporation. It was granted March 2d of that year. The name was “Medford Turnpike corporation.” The act required them to run the road easterly of Winter Hill and Plowed Hill. It must be three rods on the upland, and not more than six on the marsh. If not completed within three years, the grant was to be null and void. The Corporation were required to build all extra bridges over Middlesex Canal, and keep them and the sluices in repair. They could hold real estate to the amount of six thousand dollars. Shares in the stock were deemed personal property. Moderate tolls have made this the most frequented route to Boston. Attempts have several times been made to open it free of toll to the public; and the town of Medford voted their consent,

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