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[69] repairs. April 27, 1716, “put to vote whether Dea. Thomas Willis, John Whitmore, Jonathan Tufts, Ebenezer Brooks, and John Willis, shall view and consider what method may be most proper for the repairing of Gravelly Bridge, and what may be the cost thereof, and make report to said town at their next town-meeting. Voted in the affirmative.” June 11, 1716: Voted “£ 5 to be raised for the repairing their meeting-house and mending Gravelly Bridge.”

The bridge over Gravelly Creek, in Ship Street, was built by a few Medford persons, in 1746, for the purpose of making a road to the tide-mill.

March 4, 1751: Voted to build a new bridge of stone where the present Gravelly Bridge is. This continued till recently, when a new one, built of stone, has been widened so as to cover the entire street.

March 7, 1803: “Voted, that the bridges over Meetinghouse and Whitmore's Brooks, so called, be rebuilt with stone.”

The bridge over Marble Brook, in West Medford (called “Meeting-house Brook” in later times), was made of wood at first, and so continued for more than a century; it was then built of stone, in 1803, and so continued till 1850, when it was rebuilt of stone, and made as wide as the street. The same remarks belong to the small bridge, called “Whitmore's Bridge,” farther west, and near the Lowell Railroad Station in West Medford.

There is one feature connected with each of the four bridges, herein described, which is worth a passing notice. It is this. These bridges were only half the width of the road, and thus allowed fording ways at their sides. It was formerly the custom for those travelling with horses or driving cattle to let their horses and cattle pass through the brook, and drink. The multiplication of wells, in public squares and frequented places, has helped to change the old habits; and now, generally, these “watering-places” are covered.

The bridge at Penny Ferry (Malden) was opened for travel, Sept. 28, 1787; and President Washington rode over it in October, 1789, when he visited Salem. At that time, he came to Medford to see his friend, General Brooks, who lived in the first house west of the meeting-house. Medford opposed the building of the bridge on two grounds: first, that it would encumber navigation ; and, second, that it

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