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At Paris I found Palfrey's book,1 which I read at once with great interest; it is admirable in all respects. Dana's book2 I hear of in the hands of his London friends. I fund Lady Cranworth much pleased with it. Lord Stanhope finds his old friend W. Irving's “Life of Washington” very poor,— entirely unworthy of the subject and of the author. The Life of John Adams he recognizes as a very different work, and of positive merit. I hear of Seward's visit, but have not yet seen him. Since I have been in London he has been in the Provinces, where he went partly to escape the 4th of July dinner. Is he to be our candidate?

To Theodore Parker, August 4:—

Meanwhile, what sudden changes in the attitude of European States! The peace of Villafranca is as treacherous and clever as its author, for I feel disposed at least to concede to him cleverness. But as time passes it promises to be more and more advantageous to Italy. Several things seem accomplished,—(1) Lonmbardy rescued from Austria; (2) The duchies (Parma, Modena, and Tuscany) all taken from their old governments, and probably from the influence of Austria; (3) The idea of Italian unity and independence recognized by Europe; (1) A movement in Italy which I think will ripen into events. Of course, this is not the programme with which the war was commenced; but it is something gained. Think of old Gino Capponi, blind, led to the urn, and voting for the emancipation of his country! Well done, gallant veteran! . . . I am glad that my brother George has found a tongue with which to speak offensive truth. The abuse he has received will do him good. How much remains to be done! I do not agree with Seward, who says the cause is won; if so, I should at once retire. Before me are fiercest battles, even at home in Boston; the slave-driving sentiment is still uppermost there. I long for you there once more. A discourse from you on Mr. Choate would have been another great sermon to the nation, wherein they would have seen that brilliant and lovely qualities could not cover treason to humanity.3 Pray, get well. God bless you!

He remained at Bains Frascati six weeks, lodging at the hotel, where he took swimming baths daily, and had access to the public library and the Cercle du Commerce, which was well supplied with newspapers.4 He was in Paris for a day, August 14, to witness the emperor's triumphal entry into the city on

1 History of New England.

2 To Cuba and Back.

3 Rufus Choate was. after his death, the subject of a sermon by James Freeman Clarke and of an address by Wendell Phillips, in which those reformers took Sumner's and Parker's view of him.

4 Mr. A. N. Chrystie, an American merchant at Havre since 1849, and a fellow passenger with Sumner on the ‘Vanderbilt,’ saw him frequently while he was at Bains Frascati. finding him, as he said, very sociable, unlike other public men he had known. Sumner dined often with Mr. Chrystie, who observed, as Richard Gordon had observed at Montpellier, his habit of stopping in the street and putting his hand to his back, when quite unconscious that any one saw the movement.

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