previous next

9% of the text is displayed below. If you wish to view the entire text, please click here

Chapter 4:


Political history.

Medford takes a rich share in the political honors of the country. At an early date, it expressed its determination to preserve inviolate the rights and privileges secured to the colony by the charter of 1629. When the four colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven united, May 19, 1643, under the name of “The United Colonies of New England,” their politics and patriotism [144] seem to expand together. This fraternal bond was especially strengthened in our ancestors' hearts, when, by the charter of Oct. 7, 1691, Plymouth was annexed to Massachusetts.

May 10, 1643: The General Court say “that the whole plantation, within this jurisdiction, is divided into four shires; to wit, Essex, Norfolk, Middlesex, and Suffolk.” Each had eight towns, except Norfolk, which had six.

June 4, 1689: “Ensign Peter Tufts was chosen by the town as Representative, according to the Honorable Council's signification.”

May 21, 1690: “Peter Tufts was chosen Deputy to attend the first session of the General Court, or until another shall be legally chosen.”

May 3, 1697: “Voted to pay the Representative 18d. per day, during his services in the General Court.”

The indignation of our fathers in Medford, at the oppressive taxation of Andross, was expressed by a fisherman, in a pointed figure drawn from his craft. Sir Edward Andross, belonging to that select political family of which Benedict Arnold was an accepted member, was sent by the king as a spy to New England in 1684. He gathered facts from his imagination, and returned to persuade the credulous royal government that the Colonies had forfeited their charter. This induced the king to appoint him “Governor-General and Vice-Admiral of New England, New York, and the Jerseys.” He arrived in Boston, Dec. 29, 1686, and commenced, as despots generally do, with professions of friendship and patriotism. But he came prepared for trampling on the liberties of the people, by bringing with him power to enact laws, raise an army, impose taxes, and abolish the representative system. He thus destroyed townships, and said,--“There is no such thing as a town in the whole country.” He and his Council were vested with all legislative and executive powers. And thus the country mourned over their lost charter and fallen liberties. This tyrant contended that every owner of land must renew his title to it, and for his agency the most exorbitant fees were demanded. He levied taxes without any permission from the people or government, and punished cruelly those who refused to pay. The inhabitants of every town were forbidden to meet and exercise their corporate powers, except once a year: and they were told by the Judges, in open Court, “that they had no more privileges left them, than not to be sold for slaves.” [145]

The Anglo-Saxon blood of our Puritan Fathers could not brook this; and they dared to more than think of relief. The great revolution of 1688, in the mother country, ending in the abdication of James, and the accession of William and Mary, afforded an encouraging example on this side the water. That example was promptly followed; and on the morning of the 18th of April, 1689, the people rose in righteous revolt, seized their oppressor, secured him in prison, and destroyed his government. This was decisive New Englandism. He was soon sent back to London to be tried. Of this odious ruler, one of the Medford people said, “If Andross comes to Medford, we will treat him, not with shad or alewives, but a sword-fish.”

The loyalty of our fathers was seen in their holding days of public fasting and prayer when sorrow or defeat visited the mother country, and of holding days of thanksgiving when prosperity and triumph blessed the king. As an example, we would mention a day of rejoicing set apart in Medford, October 14, 1743, on account of victory gained by the English troops in Germany.

1753: Medford was fined £ 10 for omitting to send a representative to the General Court; but, January 10, 1754, this fine was remitted.

Our town, though small, did its share in Philip's War, and raised money and men to put down that intelligent and brave Indian enemy. The same spirit of liberty breathed in their souls at a later day; and, when the odious Stamp Act was proclaimed, the inhabitants of Medford came together, as with a rush, on the 21st of October, 1765, to express their sober convictions of its unconstitutionality and injustice. With entire unanimity, they addressed a letter to their representative, protesting against some former acts of Parliament, but most emphatically against “this most grievous of all acts, wherein a complication of those burdens and restraints are unhappily imposed, which will undeniably deprive us of those invaluable liberties and privileges which we, as free-born Britons, have hitherto enjoyed.” Professing loyalty to their king and parliament, they nevertheless say, that, “whenever they require such an obedience from us as is incompatible with the enjoyment of our just liberties and properties, we cannot but arise and openly remonstrate against it. And this, we esteem, is so far from a spirit of rebellion and disloyalty in us, that to act the contrary would argue in us a [146] meanness and degeneracy of spirit much beneath the character of true Englishmen, and would therefore justly expose us to the contempt of all true lovers of liberty, both in Great Britain and America.” --“Therefore we seriously enjoin it upon you, as our representative, that you be no ways aiding or assisting in the execution of said act.” This language, with them of prophecy, had a meaning almost as clear as it has with us of history. Their words have that political polarity which points at ultimate independence. If every little village in the Province was thus moved with quick indignation at the first instance of positive oppression, does it not prove the existence of a general sympathy and a united brotherhood which will be unconquerable? Medford felt every pulsation of the central heart, and spoke openly what she felt, and was ready to act as nobly as she spoke. The above resolves and instructions of the town were among the first and firmest of the acts of resistance to royal oppression.

On the 18th of March, 1766, Parliament repealed the odious act by a vote of two hundred and seventy-five to one hundred and sixty-seven. The joy exhibited at Medford, on this event, was most intense, and was manifested by fire-works, ringing of bells, and jubilant dinners.

Parliament resumes taxation, June 29, 1767, asserting its right to “bind the Colonies in all cases whatsoever.” Duties were laid on paper, tea, glass, and painters' colors. A custom-house was opened, and a civil list established; and the act provides, that, after ministerial warrants are satisfied, the residue of the revenue shall be at the disposal of Parliament. The trump of doom could not have caused a more general awakening. New England now was doubly alive.

The preparation-note was sounded in Medford, Dec. 21, 1772, in these words:--

Voted to choose a Committee to take under consideration the grievances we labor under, and in particular of salaries said to be appointed by the Crown for our supreme judges; and also to draw up instructions for our representative relative thereto.

This signal-gun, fired from the battlements of liberty, gave not an “uncertain sound,” as will be seen in the following acts of our patriotic fathers. Dec. 31, 1772:--

Voted that the thanks of the town of Medford be given to the respectable inhabitants of the town of Boston for their patriotic care [147] and vigilance (discovered on several occasions) in endeavoring to preserve our civil constitution from innovation, and to maintain the same inviolate. And we do assure them that our assistance shall not be wanting in the use of all such lawful proper measures as shall be thought expedient to be adopted for the preservation of our liberties, civil and religious.

The calm and solemn declaration of sentiments, sent at this time to their representative, is as follows:--

to Simon Tufts, Esq.
Sir,--You being our representative, we, your constituents, this day, in lawful town-meeting assembled, having taken into serious consideration the many and alarming grievances, as generally and justly complained of, which the Colonies in general, and this Province in particular, labor under, as being subversive of the essential rights and privileges of free British subjects, and repugnant both to the letter and spirit of our royal charter, take the freedom to lay before you our sentiments thereupon, and to enjoin you, as our representative, to use your best endeavors in the Honorable House of Representatives, at their next sessions, in promoting and assisting in such constitutional measures as shall appear best, and most likely to obtain redress of the same.

It would be too tedious, as well as needless, to enumerate, and particularly remind you of all the grievances we suffer at this time from ministerial and parliamentary proceedings; but it may suffice to say generally that our sentiments of the claims we are justly entitled to, as free British subjects, and also of the infringements from time to time made upon them, are similar to those contained in the pamphlet (now read) which our patriotic brethren of Boston have generously furnished us with; which book we recommend to your serious perusal.

In particular, we desire that you inquire into the truth of a report currently spread and prevailing among us, namely, that the Hon. Justices of the Superior Court are in future to receive their salaries from the Crown. Since such a provision, which renders them so enormously dependent upon the Crown, is of so threatening an aspect, so dangerous to the free and impartial administration of justice, as must alarm every serious person who has the welfare of his country at heart, it gives us just reason to fear that the axe is now laid at the root of our liberty, with a fixed intention to hew it down.

Therefore, sir, if, upon inquiry, you find this to be really the case, we trust you will zealously and vigorously exert yourself to avert so formidable an evil, and frustrate the wicked machinations of our inveterate enemies; and, in the mean time, that you will endeavor that the Hon. Justices of the Superior Court of Judicature, Court of Assizes, and General Jail Delivery, be amply and [148] honorably supported by grants from the General Assembly, and in such a manner as shall best tend to the maintaining of justice in the land. Finally, that you endeavor that the disputes and differences now subsisting betwixt Great Britain and the Colonies be speedily and amicably adjusted, and peace and harmony again restored.


A copy of the above was sent to the town of Boston.

The records of Medford are full of the most clear and stirring expressions of patriotism with reference to the oppressions of the Crown. So near to Boston, every pulsation of that central heart found an answering beat in the bosoms of our ancestors. They were among the first and steadiest supporters of colonial rights. There were men in Medford, in 1770, who knew their political, civil, and religious position, and who were ready to defend themselves from parliaments and ministers and kings. It will not be necessary to copy into this history the many declarations and resolutions which glow with the auroral light of liberty on the records of the town. It may be interesting to see into what form their views and feelings had settled in 1773; and these may be apprehended by the following record of a town-meeting held for the special purpose of expressing their opinion upon the Tea Question.

The record is as follows:--

The town being informed, that, by reason of the American merchants generally refusing to import tea from Great Britain while subjected to the payment of the duty imposed thereon by the British Parliament, the East India Company there have been so greatly embarrassed in the sale of their teas, that they have at length determined (through permission of Parliament) to export a supply for the Colonies on their own account. Several ships have already arrived in Boston with large quantities on board, and several more are daily expected; and we are informed that the said duty will be paid upon all such teas.

To prevent, therefore, the many formidable evils consequent upon the success of this alarming and subtle attempt to rivet the chains of oppression, the town, after mature deliberation, comes into the following resolutions:--

1. Resolved, That it is the incumbent duty of all free British subjects in America to unite in the use of all lawful measures necessary and expedient for the preservation and security of their rights and privileges, civil and religious.

2. That it is the opinion of this town, that the British Parliament have no constitutional authority to tax these Colonies without their own consent; and that, therefore, the present duty laid upon tea, [149] imported here from Great Britain for the purpose of a revenue, is a tax illegally laid upon and extorted from us.

3. That said India Company's exporting their own teas to the Colonies, while charged with said duty, has a direct tendency to establish said revenue acts.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Sort places alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a place to search for it in this document.
Medford (Massachusetts, United States) (103)
Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (17)
England (United Kingdom) (16)
United States (United States) (8)
New England (United States) (8)
Cambridge (Massachusetts, United States) (7)
John Brook (Connecticut, United States) (6)
Halifax (Massachusetts, United States) (6)
Washington (United States) (5)
London (United Kingdom) (5)
Concord (Massachusetts, United States) (5)
Norfolk (Virginia, United States) (3)
Mystick River (Massachusetts, United States) (3)
Middlesex Village (Massachusetts, United States) (3)
Charlestown, Mass. (Massachusetts, United States) (3)
Antigua (Antigua and Barbuda) (3)
Worcester (Massachusetts, United States) (2)
Suffolk, Va. (Virginia, United States) (2)
Massachusetts Bay (Massachusetts, United States) (2)
Kensington (United Kingdom) (2)
Granby (Massachusetts, United States) (2)
Europe (2)
East India (2)
Dorchester, Mass. (Massachusetts, United States) (2)
Accomack (Massachusetts, United States) (2)
Worcester County (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Winter Hill (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Watertown (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Union Hall (Virginia, United States) (1)
Ten Hills (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Springfield (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
South Hadley (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Salem (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Royalton (Vermont, United States) (1)
Rhode Island (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
North America (1)
Newburyport (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Mystic River (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Monmouth, Ill. (Illinois, United States) (1)
Mira (Illinois, United States) (1)
Middlesex County (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Mexico, Mo. (Missouri, United States) (1)
Menotomy (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Maine (Maine, United States) (1)
London, Madison County, Ohio (Ohio, United States) (1)
Kittery Point (Maine, United States) (1)
Kittery (Maine, United States) (1)
Flamborough Head (United Kingdom) (1)
Connecticut (Connecticut, United States) (1)
Bunker Camp (Missouri, United States) (1)
Brandywine (Maryland, United States) (1)
America (Illinois, United States) (1)

Visualize the most frequently mentioned Pleiades ancient places in this text.

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide People (automatically extracted)
Sort people alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a person to search for him/her in this document.
Isaac Royal (32)
Simon Tufts (11)
Abner Bartlett (10)
George Washington (8)
Turell Tufts (6)
Samuel Swan (5)
Asahel Stearns (5)
William Pepperell (5)
John Brooks (5)
Nathan Adams (5)
Peter Tufts (4)
John Sparrell (4)
Josiah Quincy (4)
Jonathan Porter (4)
Timothy Fuller (4)
Edward Everett (4)
Thomas Brooks (4)
Timothy Bigelow (4)
James M. Usher (3)
Josiah Stone (3)
Robert Rantoul (3)
William Parmenter (3)
David Osgood (3)
Thatcher Magoun (3)
Daniel P. King (3)
John Hancock (3)
Joseph P. Hall (3)
Alexander Gregg (3)
Abraham Fuller (3)
George Erving (3)
Thomas Cushing (3)
Samuel Brooks (3)
Eleazer Brooks (3)
Edward Andross (3)
William Willis (2)
Thomas Willis (2)
Stephen Willis (2)
Josiah Whittemore (2)
William Ward (2)
John Usher (2)
Jacob Tidd (2)
T. P. Smith (2)
Shays (2)
Samuel Sewall (2)
James Russell (2)
Thatcher R. Raymond (2)
George W. Porter (2)
William Polly (2)
Sanford B. Perry (2)
Isaac Parker (2)
Judah Loring (2)
Benjamin Lincoln (2)
John Jenks (2)
Jefferson (2)
Henry Hutton (2)
George Hood (2)
Samuel Hoar (2)
Stephen Hall (2)
Isaac Hall (2)
Benjamin Hall (2)
Nathaniel Gorham (2)
Christopher Gore (2)
Benjamin Goodhue (2)
Elbridge Gerry (2)
John Fox (2)
Robert Fletcher (2)
Samuel P. P. Fay (2)
William Eustice (2)
Essex (2)
Curwen (2)
Timothy Cotting (2)
Peter Chardon Brooks (2)
Nathan Brooks (2)
Edward Brooks (2)
James Bowdoin (2)
Benedict Arnold (2)
John Q. Adams (2)
Paul Wyman (1)
James Wyman (1)
Worcester (1)
Samuel Winship (1)
H. Wilson (1)
Benjamin Willis (1)
Jacob Willard (1)
Emory Washburn (1)
George A. Ward (1)
Artemus Ward (1)
Nathan Waite (1)
Nathaniel Wade (1)
Charles W. Upham (1)
John Tyng (1)
Ebenezer Turell (1)
Nathaniel Tufts (1)
John Tufts (1)
David Tilden (1)
Joseph Thompson (1)
Samuel Thatcher (1)
Temple (1)
Joshua Symonds (1)
Daniel Swan (1)
James Sullivan (1)
Caleb Stetson (1)
Henry B. Stanton (1)
R. D. Shepherd (1)
Samuel E. Sewall (1)
Saxon (1)
Leverett Saltonstall (1)
William M. Richardson (1)
Lewis Richardson (1)
Nathan Reed (1)
Thatcher Raymond (1)
Edmund Quincy (1)
Henry Putnam (1)
Aaron Putnam (1)
Royall Professor (1)
S. Printed (1)
James Prince (1)
Oliver Prescott (1)
James Prescott (1)
Henry Porter (1)
Poor (1)
Polk (1)
Sir William Pepperell (1)
Thomas R. Peck (1)
Jonathan Patten (1)
Theophilus Parsons (1)
James Otis (1)
George Osborn (1)
Elizabeth Oliver (1)
Jonathan Oldham (1)
Increase Nowell (1)
Monroe (1)
Medford (1)
Madison (1)
Maddison (1)
Heman Lincoln (1)
Rufus King (1)
John King (1)
Samuel Kidder (1)
John Keyes (1)
Frederick A. Kendall (1)
Paul Jones (1)
John Coffin Jones (1)
Ichabod Jones (1)
William Jarvis (1)
Galen James (1)
Charles Henry Hutton (1)
William Hull (1)
Joseph Hosmer (1)
William Hoskins (1)
Aaron K. Hathaway (1)
Edmund T. Hastings (1)
Richard Hall (1)
Ebenezer Hall (1)
Aaron Hall (1)
Hagar (1)
Gushing (1)
Benjamin Grenleaf (1)
Simon Greenleaf (1)
William Gowen (1)
Mary Gould (1)
Seth Gorham (1)
Henry J. Gardner (1)
Gage (1)
Timothy Fitch (1)
John B. Fitch (1)
Luke Fishe (1)
Francis B. Fay (1)
William Earl (1)
William B. Dodge (1)
Jonas Dix (1)
James Dix (1)
George W. Dike (1)
Samuel Dexter (1)
Jail Delivery (1)
Samuel Dana (1)
Judge Dana (1)
Francis Dana (1)
William Cushing (1)
Samuel Curtis (1)
James O. Curtis (1)
Cummings (1)
Croesus (1)
Richard Crees (1)
David Cobb (1)
Aaron Cleveland (1)
John Cary (1)
Buren (1)
Leonard Bucknam (1)
Increase H. Brown (1)
Peter C. Brooks (1)
Gorham Brooks (1)
John Bradshaw (1)
John Blaney (1)
Henry Bishop (1)
Roger Billings (1)
John P. Bigelow (1)
Luther V. Bell (1)
Belisarius (1)
Nathaniel P. Banks (1)
William Baldwin (1)
E. C. Baker (1)
John Hooker Ashman (1)
Fisher Ames (1)
John Allford (1)
John B. Alley (1)
Farewell Address (1)
Samuel Adams (1)
John Adams (1)
hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
February 12th, 1850 AD (4)
March 27th, 1781 AD (4)
1779 AD (4)
1778 AD (4)
1775 AD (4)
1852 AD (3)
1834 AD (3)
March 14th, 1788 AD (3)
1788 AD (3)
1776 AD (3)
1770 AD (3)
1854 AD (2)
1851 AD (2)
February 25th, 1843 AD (2)
1840 AD (2)
1838 AD (2)
1833 AD (2)
1831 AD (2)
November 1st, 1830 AD (2)
January 1st, 1823 AD (2)
1817 AD (2)
1815 AD (2)
1800 AD (2)
November 7th, 1796 AD (2)
November 2nd, 1792 AD (2)
December 18th, 1788 AD (2)
1781 AD (2)
1780 AD (2)
May 17th, 1779 AD (2)
May 25th, 1778 AD (2)
1777 AD (2)
1752 AD (2)
1743 AD (2)
June (2)
May (2)
April 19th (2)
April (2)
1855 AD (1)
November 13th, 1854 AD (1)
November 14th, 1853 AD (1)
June 7th, 1853 AD (1)
March 7th, 1853 AD (1)
1853 AD (1)
November 8th, 1852 AD (1)
April 21st, 1852 AD (1)
April 2nd, 1851 AD (1)
January 31st, 1851 AD (1)
November 11th, 1850 AD (1)
July 19th, 1850 AD (1)
January 1st, 1850 AD (1)
1850 AD (1)
November 13th, 1848 AD (1)
1848 AD (1)
October 12th, 1847 AD (1)
April 24th, 1847 AD (1)
1847 AD (1)
November 9th, 1846 AD (1)
1846 AD (1)
November 11th, 1844 AD (1)
January 1st, 1844 AD (1)
August 29th, 1843 AD (1)
August 20th, 1843 AD (1)
June 3rd, 1843 AD (1)
January 5th, 1843 AD (1)
1843 AD (1)
December 17th, 1842 AD (1)
November 4th, 1842 AD (1)
February 22nd, 1842 AD (1)
November 9th, 1840 AD (1)
October 1st, 1840 AD (1)
April 16th, 1840 AD (1)
January 8th, 1839 AD (1)
November 12th, 1838 AD (1)
July 6th, 1838 AD (1)
January 6th, 1837 AD (1)
1837 AD (1)
December 31st, 1836 AD (1)
December 6th, 1836 AD (1)
November 24th, 1836 AD (1)
November 14th, 1836 AD (1)
August 30th, 1836 AD (1)
January 27th, 1836 AD (1)
1836 AD (1)
March 28th, 1835 AD (1)
1835 AD (1)
November 10th, 1834 AD (1)
December 18th, 1833 AD (1)
November, 1833 AD (1)
May 18th, 1833 AD (1)
November 10th, 1832 AD (1)
January 25th, 1832 AD (1)
December 20th, 1831 AD (1)
January 30th, 1830 AD (1)
October 19th, 1829 AD (1)
February 21st, 1829 AD (1)
1829 AD (1)
November 3rd, 1828 AD (1)
June 5th, 1828 AD (1)
April, 1828 AD (1)
January 4th, 1827 AD (1)
1827 AD (1)
November 6th, 1826 AD (1)
July 7th, 1826 AD (1)
1826 AD (1)
February 8th, 1825 AD (1)
1825 AD (1)
November 1st, 1824 AD (1)
January 7th, 1824 AD (1)
1824 AD (1)
February 7th, 1823 AD (1)
November 4th, 1822 AD (1)
May 7th, 1822 AD (1)
February 16th, 1822 AD (1)
June 16th, 1821 AD (1)
April 9th, 1821 AD (1)
January 12th, 1821 AD (1)
November 6th, 1820 AD (1)
October 10th, 1820 AD (1)
January 26th, 1820 AD (1)
1820 AD (1)
August 20th, 1819 AD (1)
January 27th, 1819 AD (1)
November 2nd, 1818 AD (1)
February 10th, 1818 AD (1)
1818 AD (1)
February 6th, 1817 AD (1)
November 20th, 1816 AD (1)
November 4th, 1816 AD (1)
July 3rd, 1816 AD (1)
January 27th, 1816 AD (1)
1816 AD (1)
July 3rd, 1815 AD (1)
December, 1814 AD (1)
November 7th, 1814 AD (1)
February 20th, 1813 AD (1)
February 8th, 1813 AD (1)
1813 AD (1)
November 21st, 1812 AD (1)
November 20th, 1812 AD (1)
November 2nd, 1812 AD (1)
June 18th, 1812 AD (1)
1812 AD (1)
February 25th, 1811 AD (1)
November 5th, 1810 AD (1)
March 6th, 1810 AD (1)
February 2nd, 1810 AD (1)
November 8th, 1808 AD (1)
November 7th, 1808 AD (1)
1808 AD (1)
January 29th, 1807 AD (1)
1807 AD (1)
November 3rd, 1806 AD (1)
February 25th, 1806 AD (1)
January 16th, 1806 AD (1)
January 31st, 1805 AD (1)
1805 AD (1)
November, 1804 AD (1)
February 3rd, 1803 AD (1)
November 1st, 1802 AD (1)
November 3rd, 1800 AD (1)
June 13th, 1800 AD (1)
January 13th, 1800 AD (1)
January 2nd, 1800 AD (1)
December, 1799 AD (1)
November 5th, 1798 AD (1)
May 29th, 1798 AD (1)
April 16th, 1798 AD (1)
February 28th, 1795 AD (1)
November 3rd, 1794 AD (1)
August 9th, 1794 AD (1)
March 8th, 1792 AD (1)
October 4th, 1790 AD (1)
June 25th, 1789 AD (1)
1789 AD (1)
February 6th, 1788 AD (1)
April 26th, 1787 AD (1)
March 10th, 1787 AD (1)
1787 AD (1)
August 2nd, 1786 AD (1)
May 12th, 1785 AD (1)
January 28th, 1785 AD (1)
1785 AD (1)
March 1st, 1784 AD (1)
1784 AD (1)
September 26th, 1783 AD (1)
April 7th, 1783 AD (1)
1783 AD (1)
October, 1782 AD (1)
1782 AD (1)
October, 1781 AD (1)
July 30th, 1781 AD (1)
June 29th, 1781 AD (1)
May 6th, 1781 AD (1)
April 2nd, 1781 AD (1)
September 4th, 1780 AD (1)
May 28th, 1780 AD (1)
March 2nd, 1780 AD (1)
October 18th, 1779 AD (1)
October, 1779 AD (1)
September 30th, 1779 AD (1)
September 23rd, 1779 AD (1)
September 1st, 1779 AD (1)
August 22nd, 1779 AD (1)
July 29th, 1779 AD (1)
May 1st, 1779 AD (1)
May, 1779 AD (1)
April 30th, 1779 AD (1)
April 12th, 1779 AD (1)
February 1st, 1779 AD (1)
October, 1778 AD (1)
September, 1778 AD (1)
May 28th, 1778 AD (1)
April 30th, 1778 AD (1)
April 9th, 1778 AD (1)
February 28th, 1778 AD (1)
January, 1778 AD (1)
September 22nd, 1777 AD (1)
August, 1777 AD (1)
March 3rd, 1777 AD (1)
September 20th, 1776 AD (1)
August 26th, 1776 AD (1)
June 10th, 1776 AD (1)
April, 1776 AD (1)
March 12th, 1776 AD (1)
September 13th, 1775 AD (1)
August 6th, 1775 AD (1)
July, 1775 AD (1)
May 23rd, 1775 AD (1)
May, 1775 AD (1)
April 19th, 1775 AD (1)
February 1st, 1775 AD (1)
November 14th, 1774 AD (1)
August 27th, 1774 AD (1)
June 1st, 1774 AD (1)
1773 AD (1)
December 31st, 1772 AD (1)
December 21st, 1772 AD (1)
1772 AD (1)
June 29th, 1767 AD (1)
March 18th, 1766 AD (1)
October 21st, 1765 AD (1)
January 24th, 1764 AD (1)
1763 AD (1)
1762 AD (1)
June 6th, 1759 AD (1)
May 8th, 1754 AD (1)
January 10th, 1754 AD (1)
1753 AD (1)
1751 AD (1)
April 21st, 1747 AD (1)
1745 AD (1)
1744 AD (1)
October 14th, 1743 AD (1)
1742 AD (1)
1741 AD (1)
June 7th, 1739 AD (1)
1738 AD (1)
1735 AD (1)
December 26th, 1732 AD (1)
1730 AD (1)
1726 AD (1)
1723 AD (1)
1722 AD (1)
1719 AD (1)
1718 AD (1)
1715 AD (1)
1714 AD (1)
1708 AD (1)
1705 AD (1)
1704 AD (1)
1703 AD (1)
May 3rd, 1697 AD (1)
1696 AD (1)
1694 AD (1)
1692 AD (1)
October 7th, 1691 AD (1)
May 21st, 1690 AD (1)
1690 AD (1)
June 4th, 1689 AD (1)
April 18th, 1689 AD (1)
1689 AD (1)
1688 AD (1)
December 29th, 1686 AD (1)
1684 AD (1)
May 19th, 1643 AD (1)
May 10th, 1643 AD (1)
1636 AD (1)
1629 AD (1)
November 30th (1)
September 1st (1)
August 13th (1)
April 25th (1)
February 22nd (1)
January 22nd (1)
January 13th (1)
25th (1)
10th (1)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: