previous next

X. Tennessee--Kentucky--Mississippi—Buell — BraggRosecransGrantVan Dorn..

The comatose condition into which the war on the Tennessee had fallen, after the removal of Mitchel to the South, was fitfully broken by patterings of Rebel enterprise far in the rear of our main army. While Buell, at or near Huntsville, Ala., was deliberately reorganizing and disciplining his forces, schooling them to an unwonted deference for Rebel rights of property — especially of property in men — guerrilla raids and attacks became increasingly and disagreeably frequent throughout Kentucky and Tennessee--the Confederate leaders, especially those of cavalry regiments, on finding that they were not needed in our front, transferring their assiduous and vehement attentions to our flanks and rear. The names of Forrest and John Morgan began to be decidedly notorious. Horse-stealing — in fact, stealing in general — in the name and behalf of Liberty and Patriotism, is apt to increase in popularity so long as it is practiced with impunity; and the horses of Kentucky are eminently calculated to inflame the love of country glowing in the breast of every cavalier. Burning bridges, and clutching whatever property could be made useful in war, had been for some time current; when at length a bolder blow was struck in the capture1 of Lebanon, Ky. [not Tenn.], and almost simultaneously of Murfreesboroa, Tenn., which Forrest surprised; making prisoners of Brig.-Gens. Duffield and Crittenden, of Ind., with the 9th Michigan, 3d Minnesota, 4 companies of the 4th Ky. cavalry, and 3 companies of the 7th Pa. cavalry, after a spirited but brief resistance. Henderson, Ky., on the Ohio, was likewise seized by a guerrilla band, who clutched a large amount of hospital stores; and, being piloted across by some Indiana traitors, captured a hospital also at Newburg, Ind., and paroled its helpless inmates. Col. John Morgan likewise captured2 Cynthiana, in north-eastern Kentucky; but was run off directly by a superior cavalry force under Gen. Green Clay Smith. Morgan claims in his report to have captured and paroled 1,200 Union soldiers during this raid, with a total loss of but 90 of his men. Large quantities [213] of plunder were thus obtained, while property of much greater value was destroyed; and enough recruits were doubtless gathered to offset the waste of war. Still, military operations, without a base and without regular supplies, seldom produce substantial, enduring results; and the Confederate guerrillas either soon abandoned Kentucky or concealed themselves and lay quiet therein. The leaders, with most of their followers, retired into Tennessee, where they captured Clarksville3 and possessed themselves of ample military stores; and a sharp cavalry fight at Gallatin resulted in a Union defeat, with a loss of 30 killed, 50 wounded, and 75 prisoners.

Gen. Buell had left Corinth in June, moving eastward, as if intent on Chattanooga; but Gen. Bragg--who had succeeded to the chief command of the Rebels confronting him — had thereupon moved more rapidly, on parallel roads, from Tupelo, Miss., through northern Alabama and Georgia, to Chattanooga, which he reached ahead of Buell's vanguard. Bragg's army had been swelled by conscription to some 45,000 men, organized in three corps, under Hardee, Bishop Polk, and Kirby Smith respectively, whereof the last was sent to Knoxville, while the two former sufficed to hold Chattanooga against any effort which Buell was likely to make.

McClellan's Richmond campaign having proved abortive, while conscription had largely replenished the Rebel ranks, Bragg was impelled to try a bold stroke for the recovery of Tennessee and the “liberation” of Kentucky. As with Lee's kindred advance into Maryland, the increasing scarcity of food was the more immediate, while fond expectations of a general rising in support of the Confederate cause, afforded the remoter incitement to this step. Louisville, with its immense resources, was the immediate object of this gigantic raid, though Cincinnati was thought to be also within its purview. Crossing4 the Tennessee at Harrison, a few miles above Chattanooga, with 36 regiments of infantry, 5 of cavalry, and 40 guns, Bragg traversed the rugged mountain ridges which hem in the Sequatchie Valley, passing through Dunlap,5 Pikeville,6 Crossville,7 masking his movement by a feint with cavalry on McMinnville, but rapidly withdrawing this when its purpose was accomplished, and pressing hurriedly northward, to Kentucky; which he entered on the 5th.

Kirby Smith, with his division, from Knoxville, advanced by Jacksonborough8 across the Cumberland range, through Big Creek Gap, moving as rapidly as possible, with a very light train ; his men subsisting mainly on green corn — which is scarce enough in that poor, thinly-peopled region — his hungry, foot-sore, dusty followers buoyed up with the assurance of plenty and comfort ahead. His cavalry advance, 900 strong, under Col. J. S. Scott, moving9 from Kingston, Tenn., passed through Montgomery and Jamestown, Tenn., and Monticello and Somerset, Ky., to London, where it surprised10 and routed a battalion of Union cavalry, inflicting a loss of 30 killed and wounded and 111 prisoners; thence pushing on, making additional captures by the [214] way, to Richmond, Ky.; thence falling back to rejoin Smith, who had not yet come up.

The Cumberland Mountains are a broad range of table-land, some 2,000 feet in average height, descending sharply to the upper waters of the Tennessee and Cumberland on either hand, and pierced by a single considerable pass — the Cumberland Gap — which had been for some time quietly held by a Union force under Gen. Geo. W. Morgan; who, on learning that he had thus been flanked, blew up his works and commenced11 a precipitate race for the Ohio, which he in due time reached, having been constantly harassed, for most of the way, by John Morgan with 700 Rebel cavalry.

Moving rapidly northward, Smith found himself confronted12 at Richmond, Ky., by a green Union force, nearly equal in numbers to his own, under command of Brig.-Gen. M. D. Manson, who immediately pushed forward to engage him, taking position on a range of hills, a mile or two south of the town, which was otherwise indefensible. Here he had a smart skirmish with the Rebel advance, and drove it back; which prompted him to quit his strong position for one still farther advanced, at Rogersville, where his men slept on their arms that night. Next morning, he advanced half a mile farther, and here engaged Smith's entire command, with no chance of success. His force was quite equal in numbers and in guns to Smith's, but in nothing else. He attempted to flank the Rebel right, but was defeated with loss by Col. Preston Smith's brigade; when his right was successfully turned by the Rebel left, Gen. T. J. Churchill, and routed in a daring charge; whereupon our whole line gave way and retreated. The Rebel Gen. Pat. Cleburne, afterward so distinguished, was here badly wounded in the face, and succeeded in his command by Col. Smith.

Gen. Cruft, with the 95th Ohio, had reached the field just before, and shared in this defeat; but he had three more regiments coming up as our line gave way. Using two of these as a rear-guard, Manson attempted to halt and reform just beyond Rogersville; but soon saw that this would not answer, and again retired to the position wherefrom he had commenced the fight the evening before, and which he ought not to have left. Here, at 12 1/2 P. M., he received, just as the battle was recommencing, an order from Gen. Nelson, who was coming up, to retreat on Lancaster, if menaced by the enemy in force — an order which came entirely too late: the exultant Rebels being close upon him, and opening fire along their whole line within five minutes afterward.

The fight beyond Rogersville had been maintained through three hours; here an hour sufficed to end it. Again our right was charged and routed, compelling a general retreat; and again — having been driven back to his camp — Manson was trying to reform and make head, when, Gen. Nelson having reached the ground, the command was turned over to him, and another stand made near the town and cemetery, which was converted into a total rout in less than half an hour; Gen. Nelson being here wounded, as Cols. Link, [215] 12th Indiana, McMillan, 95th Ohio, and other valuable officers, had already been. Lt.-Col. Topping and Maj. Conkling, 71st Indiana, had been killed.

The rout was now total and complete; and, to make the most of it, Smith had, hours before, sent Scott, with his cavalry, around to our rear, with instructions to prepare for and intercept the expected fugitives. Manson, who had resumed command when Nelson fell, had formed a new rear-guard, which was keeping the Rebel pursuit within bounds; when, four miles from Richmond, the fleeing rabble were halted by a body of Rebel horse. Manson, hurrying up, attempted to form a vanguard; but only 100 responded to his call, who were speedily cut up by a fire from a force of Rebels hidden in a corn-field on the left of the road, whereby Lt.-Col. Wolfe and 41 others were killed or wounded. The road was here choked with wounded horses and other debris of a shattered army; it was growing dusk (7 P. M.), and the remains of our thoroughly beaten force scattered through the fields; every one attempting to save himself as he could. Gen. Manson, with other officers, attempting escape by flight, was fired on by a squadron of Scott's cavalry; his horse, mortally wounded, fell on him, injuring him severely, and he was taken prisoner; as were many if not most of his compatriots in disaster.

Manson's report says that his entire force this day “did not exceed 6,500,” of whom not over 2,500 were engaged at once — a sad commentary on his generalship — and he adds: “The enemy say they had 12,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry, and 15 guns” --which they don't. He estimates his loss at 200 killed, 700 wounded, and 2,000 prisoners. Kirby Smith, on the contrary, makes our force fully 10,000--his own but 5,000; and states his total loss at 400, and ours at 1,000 killed and wounded, 5,000 prisoners, 9 guns, 10,000 small arms, and large spoil of munitions and provisions. It is quite probable that his story, though exaggerated, is nearer the truth than Manson's.

Smith set forward directly13 for Lexington, which he entered in triumph three days afterward, amid the frantic acclamations of the numerous Rebel sympathizers of that intensely pro-Slavery region. He moved on through Paris to Cynthiana, within striking distance of either Cincinnati or Louisville, which seemed for a few days to lie at his mercy; though considerable numbers, mainly of militia and very green volunteers, had been hastily gathered for the defense of the former, and were busily employed in erecting defenses covering the Kentucky approaches to that city, at some distance back from the Ohio.

Gen. Bragg had now completely flanked Buell's left, and passed behind him, without a struggle and without loss, keeping well eastward of Nashville, and advancing by Carthage, Tenn., and Glasgow, Ky.; first striking the Louisville and Nashville Railroad--which was our main line of supply and reenforcement — after he entered Kentucky.14 His advance, under Gen. J. R. Chalmers, first encountered15 a considerable force at Munfordsville, where the railroad crosses Green river, and where Col. [216] J. T. Wilder, with about 2,100 men, had assumed command five days before, by order of Gen. J. T. Boyle, commanding, in Kentucky, and had hastily thrown up fortifications, with intent to dispute the passage of the river. Chalmers had already sent a mounted force to the north of Munfordsville, by which a first demand for surrender was made at 8 P. M. The demand being repelled, an assault was made at daylight next morning, but speedily repulsed with loss. At 9 A. M., Wilder was reenforced by six companies of the 50th Indiana, Col. C. L. Dunham, who, being his senior, after hesitating, assumed command; but was superseded soon afterward by an order from Boyle, and Wilder restored.

The Rebels, after their first repulse, kept mainly out of sight, knowing that their ultimate success was inevitable, and allowed two more regiments and six guns to make their way into the town; assured that all who were there would soon fall into their hands. At length, at 9 1/2 A. M. on Tuesday,16 Bragg, having brought up his main body and surrounded the place with not less than 25,000 men, renewed the attack. Advancing cautiously, keeping his men well covered, but crowding up on the weak and exposed points of our defenses in such numbers as absolutely to compel the gradual contraction of our lines, he, about sunset, sent in a flag of truce, demanding a surrender. As Buell was not at hand, nor likely to be, and as there was no hope of relief from any quarter, and no adequate reason for sacrificing the lives of his men, Wilder, at 2 A. M. next day,17 after the fullest consultation with his officers, surrendered; being allowed to march out with drums beating and colors flying, take four days rations, and set forth immediately, under parole, for Louisville, He says in his report that his entire loss was 37 killed and wounded, “while the enemy admit a loss of 714 on Sunday alone.” Bragg, on the contrary, says, “Our [Rebel] loss was about 50 killed and wounded;” and claims 4,000 prisoners and as many muskets, beside guns and munitions.

Bragg now issued the following address to the people of Kentucky, which, read backward, will indicate the objects and motives of his invasion:

Glasgow, Ky., Sept. 18, 1862.
Kentuckians: I have entered your State with the Confederate Army of the West, and offer you an opportunity to free yourselves from the tyranny of a despotic ruler. We come, not as conquerors or despoilers, but to restore to you the liberties of which you have been deprived by a cruel and relentless foe. We come to guarantee to all the sanctity of their homes and altars; to punish with a rod of iron the despoilers of your peace, and to avenge the cowardly insults to your women. With all non-combatants, the past shall be forgotten. Needful supplies must be had for my army; but they shall be paid for at fair and remunerating prices.

Believing that the heart of Kentucky is with us in our great struggle for Constitutional Freedom, we have transferred from our own soil to yours, not a band of marauders, but a powerful and well-disciplined army. Your gallant Buckner leads the van. Marshall is on the right; while Breckin-ridge, dear to us as to you, is advancing with Kentucky's valiant sons, to receive the honor and applause due to their heroism. The strong hands which in part have sent Shiloh down to history, and the nerved arms which have kept at bay from our own homes the boastful army of the enemy, are here to assist, to sustain, to liberate you. Will you remain indifferent to our call? or will you not rather vindicate the fair fame of your once free and envied State? We believe that you will; and that the memory [217] of your gallant dead who fell at Shiloh, their faces turned homeward, will rouse you to a manly effort for yourselves and posterity.

Kentuckians! we have come with joyous hopes. Let us not depart in sorrow, as we shall if we find you wedded in your choice to your present lot. If you prefer Federal rule, show it by your frowns, and we shall return whence we came. If you choose rather to come within the folds of our brotherhood, then cheer us with the smiles of your women, and lend your willing hands to secure you in your heritage of liberty.

Women of Kentucky! your persecutions and heroic bearing have reached our ear. Banish henceforth, forever, from your minds the fear of loathsome prisons or insulting visitations. Let your enthusiasm have free rein. Buckle on the armor of your kindred, your husbands, sons, and brothers, and scoff with shame him who would prove recreant in his duty to you, his country, and his God.

Braxton Bragg, Gen. Commanding.

It was not the fault of the General commanding that his army must necessarily have subsisted on the region of Kentucky it traversed; but, when it is considered that he swept off in his retreat all the abundant horses and cattle that came within his reach, with whatever else he could carry, and that he did not and could not pay for any thing, it seems that the mockery of his promise of payment might wisely have been forborne.

From Munfordsville, Bragg continued his unresisted march northward, through Bardstown, to Frankfort,18 the State capital, where Smith had preceded him, and where Richard Hawes,19 a weak old man, was inaugurated20Provisional Governor of Kentucky.” “This ceremony,” says Pollard, “was scarcely more than a pretentious farce: hardly was it completed when the Yankees threatened Frankfort; and the newly installed Governor had to flee from their approach.”

Gen. Buell, after leaving Nashville21 strongly garrisoned, had marched directly for Louisville, 170 miles; where his army arrived between the 25th and 29th. It had by this time been swelled by reenforcements, mainly raw, to nearly 100,000 men; but it was not, in his judgment, yet in condition to fight Bragg's far inferior numbers. Hence, time was taken to reorganize and supply it; while the Rebel cavalry galloped at will over the plenteous central districts of the State, collecting large quantities of cattle and hogs not only, but of serviceable fabrics and other manufactures as well. Buell's delays, synchronizing with McClellan's lost, were so distasteful at Washington, that an order relieving him from command was issued; but its execution was suspended on the emphatic remonstrance of his subordinate commanders. The hint being a pretty strong one, Buell set his face toward the enemy;22 moving in five columns: his left on Frankfort, his right on Shepardsville, intending to concentrate on Bardstown, where Bragg, with his main body, was supposed to be; skirmishing by the way with small parties of Rebel cavalry and artillery. Thus advancing steadily, though not rapidly, he passed through Bardstown, and thence to Springfield,23 62 miles from Louisville; Bragg slowly retreating before him, harassing rather than resisting his advance, so as to gain time for the escape of his now immense trains, consisting mainly of captured Federal army wagons, heavily laden with the spoils of Kentucky. Here Buell [218] learned that Kirby Smith had crossed the Kentucky, and that Bragg was moving to concentrate his forces either at Harrodsburg or Perryville. His own movement was therefore directed toward Perryville; three miles in front of which, moving with his 3d or central corps, he encountered, on the afternoon of the 7th, a considerable Rebel force, drawn up in order of battle; but which his advance pressed back a mile or so without much fighting; when he, expecting a battle, sent orders to McCook and Crittenden, commanding his flank corps, to advance on his right and left at 3 next morning.

McCook did not receive the order till 2 1/2 A. M., and he marched at 5; but Crittenden, unable to find water for his corps at the place where Buell had expected it to encamp for the night, had moved off the road in quest of it, and was six miles farther away than he otherwise would have been; so that the order to advance was not duly received, and his arrival at Perryville was delayed several hours.

A great drought then prevailing in Kentucky, causing severe privation and suffering to men and animals, the fight commenced early next morning, by an attempt of the enemy to repel the brigade of Col. D. McCook, which had been pushed forward by Buell on his immediate front to cover some hollows in the bed of Doctor's creek, whence a little bad water was obtained. This attempt was defeated by sending up the divisions of Gens. Mitchell and Sheridan, to hold the ground until our two flank corps should arrive; which the left, Gen. A. D. McCook, did between 10 and 11 A. M.; and the batteries of his advance division were sharply engaged with the enemy not long afterward.

Bragg was present in person; but his forces were commanded more immediately by Maj.-Gen. Bishop Polk, who had in hand five divisions--two under Hardee, and those of Patton Anderson, Cheatham, and Buckner — that of Withers having been sent by Bragg, the day before, to support Smith, who was retreating farther to the east, and was deemed in danger of being enveloped and cut off. Bragg gives no other reason for fighting before concentrating his entire command than that the enemy were pressing heavily on his rear; but it is clear that he had deliberately resolved to turn and fight at Perryville.

Maj.-Gen. McCook, having reached the position assigned him with but two of his three divisions — that of Gen. Sill having been detached and sent to Frankfort — had directed the posting of his troops and formation of his line of battle--Gen. Rousseau's division on the right, in line with the left of Gilbert's corps, and Gen. Jackson's on the left, near the little hamlet of Maxwell, on the Harrodsburg road — rode off and reported in person to Gen. Buell, 2 1/2 miles distant, in the rear of his right; and received verbal orders to make a reconnoissance in front of his position to Chaplin creek. Returning to his command, and finding nothing in progress but mutual artillery practice, to little purpose, he ordered his batteries to save their ammunition, while he made the directed reconnoissance; at the same time advancing his skirmishers and extending his [219] left, in order to obtain a more advantageous position, and enable his men to procure from the creek the water for which they were suffering. So much being accomplished, and no enemy in sight save some cavalry on the bluffs across the creek, he proceeded, at 1 1/2 P. M., to the left of his line; in no apprehension of an attack until he should see fit to make one.

Battle of Perrlyvillie.

He was grievously mistaken. Hardly had he been half an hour away from his front, when his left, composed mainly of green soldiers, under a brave but inexperienced commander, and not fully formed in order of battle, was suddenly and vehemently assailed in front and flank by rapidly charging masses of infantry and artillery, hitherto concealed in woods and hollows, but which seemed as if magically evoked from the earth.

Cheatham's division, which had been silently moved from the Rebel left to their right, led this assault, responding with terrific yells and more hurried step to the fire of our batteries, until within short musketrange, when, at their very first volley, Maj.-Gen. James S. Jackson24 fell dead. His fall disorganized the raw and over-matched brigade of Gen. Terrill, which he was desperately exerting himself to steady, and it gave way in utter panic; Gen. Terrill himself following his chief's example and sharing his fate not long afterward; as did, at a later hour, Col. George Webster, 98th Ohio, commanding a brigade.

Terrill's brigade being thus instantaneously routed, with the loss of Parsons's battery, the whole force of the Rebel charge fell upon Rousseau, who was ready to receive it. An attempt to flank and crush his left was promptly met by new dispositions: Starkweather's brigade, with Stone's and Bush's batteries, being faced to that flank, and receiving the enemy with volley after volley, which tore his ranks and arrested his momentum for two or three hours, until our ammunition was exhausted, and Bush's battery had lost 35 horses; when our guns were drawn back a short distance, and our infantry retired to replenish their cartridge-boxes; then resuming their position in line.

Rousseau's center and right were held respectively by the brigades of [220] Harris and Lytle, who fought bravely, but lost ground, in consequence of the disaster on our farther left. Finally, a desperate charge was made upon Lytle's front and right, favored by irregularities of ground, which covered and concealed it, and his brigade was hurled back; Lytle himself falling at this moment, and, believing his wound mortal, refusing to be carried off the field.

The charging Rebels now struck the left flank of Gilbert's corps, held by R. B. Mitchell and Sheridan, which had been for some little time engaged along its front. The key of its position was held — and of course well held — by Brig.-Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, who had been engaged in the morning, but had driven the enemy back out of sight, after a short but sharp contest, and had just repelled another assault on his front, advancing his line as his assailants retired, and then turning his guns upon the force which had just driven Rousseau's right. And now Gen. Mitchell pushed forward the 31st brigade, Col. Carlin, on Sheridan's right, and charged at double-quick, breaking and driving the enemy into and through Perryville, to the protection of two batteries on the bluffs beyond, capturing 15 heavily laden ammunition wagons, 2 caissons with their horses, and a train-guard of 140, retiring amid the Rebel confusion to this side of the town, and thence opening fire with his battery as darkness came on.

Meantime, the 30th brigade, Col. Gooding, which had been sent by Gilbert to the aid of McCook, had formed on our extreme left, confronting the division of the Rebel Gen. Wood, and here fought desperately for two hours against superior numbers. A lull occurring in the fusillade, Gooding rode forward, about dark, to ascertain the Rebel position; when his horse was shot under him and he made prisoner. His brigade then fell back, having lost 549 men out of 1,423; taking position in line with McCook. There was some random artillery firing afterward; but darkness substantially closed the battle.

Gen. Buell did not learn until 4 P. M. that any serious conflict was in progress. He nor heard with astonishment from McCook that he had been two hours hotly engaged; that both the right and the left of his corps were turned, or being turned; and that he was severely pressed on every hand. Reenforcements were immediately ordered to McCook from the center, and orders sent to Crittenden — who was advancing with our right division — to push forward and attack the enemy's left; but Crittenden's advance only reached the field at nightfall, when a single brigade (Wagner's) went into action on the right of Mitchell's division, just before the battle was terminated by darkness.

At 6 A. M. next day,25 Gilbert's corps advanced by order to assail the Rebel front, while Crittenden struck hard on his left flank; but they found no enemy to dispute their progress. Bragg had decamped during the night, marching on Harrodsburg; where he was joined by Kirby Smith and Withers; retreating thence southward by Bryantsville to Camp Dick Robinson, near Danville.

Bragg admits a total loss in this [221] battle of not less than 2,500; including Brig.-Gens. Wood, Cleburne, and Brown, wounded; and claims to have driven us two miles, captured 15 guns, 400 prisoners, and inflicted a total loss of 4,000. Buell's report admits a loss on our part of 4,348--916 killed, 2,943 wounded, and 489 missing; but as to guns, lie concedes a loss of but ten, whereof all but two were left on the ground, with more than 1,000 of their wounded, by the Rebels.

Gen. Buell officially reports his effective force which advanced on Perryville at 58,000; whereof 22,000 were raw troops, who had received little or no instruction. He estimates the Rebel army in Kentucky at 55,000 to 65,000 men; but of this aggregate not more than two-thirds were present. As the fighting of all but the raw troops in this battle, on our side, was remarkably good, that of the Rebels present must have been still better, since they inflicted the greater loss, gained the more ground, and captured some cannon; yet it is plain that Bragg obtained here all the fighting he was anxious for; since he abandoned some 1,200 of his sick and wounded at Harrods-burg, and 25,000 barrels of pork, with other stores, at various points; making no stand even at Camp Dick Robinson — a very strong position, behind the perpendicular bluffs of Dick's river — but retreated precipitately by Crab Orchard, Mount Vernon, London, and Barboursville, to Cumberland Gap, and thus into East Tennessee; burning even large quantities of cloths and other precious goods, for which transportation over the rough mountain roads necessarily traversed was not to be had.

The retreat was conducted by Bishop Polk, and covered by Wheeler's cavalry. And, though Kentucky was minus many thousands of animals, with other spoils of all kinds, by reason of this gigantic raid, it is not probable, in view of the inevitable suffering and loss of animals on their long, hurried, famished flight through the rugged, sterile, thinly peopled mountain region, that all the Rebels took back into East Tennessee was equal in value to the outfit with which they had set forth on this adventure.

Sill's division — which had followed Kirby Smith from Frankfort, and had had a little fight with his rearguard near Lawrenceburg — reached Perryville at nightfall on the 11th; up to which time Buell had made no decided advance. Pushing forward a strong reconnoissance next day to Dick's river, he found no enemy this side; and he learned at Danville, two days later, that Bragg was in full retreat. He sent forward in pursuit at midnight Wood's division, followed by the rest of Crittenden's and then by McCook's corps, while Gilbert's marched on the Lancaster road to the left. Wood struck the Rebel rearguard next morning at Stanford, but to little purpose; the enemy retiring when assailed in force, felling trees across the road behind him, and consuming all the forage of the region he traversed, rendering extended pursuit impossible. McCook's and Gilbert's divisions were halted at Crab Orchard; while Crittenden kept on to London, whence lie was recalled by Buell; farther pursuit being evidently useless. The Government, deeply dissatisfied with this impotent conclusion of the campaign, now relieved26 [222] Buell from command, appointing Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans in his stead.

If the disappointment on our side at the escape of Bragg with his plunder was great, the chagrin of the Rebels was even greater. They had so loudly and boastingly proclaimed that they entered Kentucky to stay, that they had incited their partisans throughout the State to compromise themselves by demonstrations which were now shown to have been rash and useless; so that thousands of the more prominent were impelled to fly with Bragg, who embarrassed his march and devoured his scanty supplies, yet were of no value to the cause when they had together entered — not in triumph — their beloved Dixie. Bragg's invasion had demonstrated afresh the antagonism of at least two-thirds of the Kentuckians to the Rebellion — a demonstration more conclusive than that uniformly afforded by her elections, because there could now be no pretense that the people were overawed or their verdict corrupted. For weeks, a gallant, formidable, triumphant Rebel army had held undisputed possession of the heart of the State; its cavalry had traversed two-thirds of it, affording opportunity and solicitation to all who were inclined to enter the Confederate service; their cause had enjoyed the prestige of several brilliant and profitable successes, while the Union forces everywhere fled before them, or made a stand only to be routed; yet the number of recruits to their standard was confessedly moderate. Excepting in a few of the rich slaveholding counties around Lexington, and in that south-western portion of the State which Bragg failed to reach, those in sympathy with the Rebellion were everywhere a decided and in many counties an inconsiderable minority.27

The transfer of Gen. Halleck to Washington had left Gen. Grant in command of the district of West Tennessee, with his headquarters at Jackson or at Bolivar, while Gen. Rosecrans was left in command in northern Mississippi and Alabama, when Gen. Buell, taking28 two of his divisions, moved northward in pursuit of Bragg. Rosecrans was at Tuscumbia when advised,29 by telegram from Gen. Grant, that a considerable Rebel force was moving northward between them, and that its cavalry had already attacked Bolivar, and cut the line of railroad between that post and Jackson. Hercupon, leaving Iuka in charge of Col. R. C. Murphy, 8th Wisconsin, Rosecrans moved castward with Stanley's division to his old encampment at Clear creek. seven miles from Corinth. Murphy precipitately abandoned his post on the approach of the Rebel cavalry, allowing a large amount of stores, with 680 barrels of flour, to fall into the hands of the enemy. A reconnoissance in [223]


force, under Col. Mower, having satisfied Rosecrans that the Rebel army under Gen. Price now occupied luka, he so advised Gen. Grant; who there-upon resolved on a combined attack, sending down Gen. Ord, with some 5,000 men, to Burnsville, seven miles west of Iuka, and following from Bolivar with such troops as could be spared to reenforce him. Ord was to move on Iuka from the north; while Rosecrans, with Stanley's, was to rejoin his remaining division, under Hamilton, at Jacinto, nine miles south of Burnsville, thence advancing on Price from the south. This concentration was duly effected;30 and Gen. Grant, who had now reached Burnsville, was advised that Rosecrans would attack Iuka, 19 1/2 miles from Jacinto, between 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 P. M. next day.

Rosecrans moved accordingly, at 3 A. M,31 in light marching order, duly advising Gen. Grant; and was within 7 1/2 miles of Iuka at noon, having been driving in the enemy's skirmishers for the last two miles. Disappointed in clearing no guns from Ord's column, lie did not choose to push his four brigades against the more numerous army in their front on separate roads, which precluded their reciprocal support, but advanced slowly — Hamilton's division in front — up to a point two miles from Iuka, where a cross-road connected that from Jacinto, on which lie was moving, with the road leading south-east-ward from Iuka to Fulton; where, [224] at 4 P. M., the Rebels were found drawn up in force, holding a strong position along a deep ravine crossing the main road, and behind the crest of a hill. Here our skirmishers were driven back on the head of the column in advance, which was suddenly saluted with a heavy fire of musketry, grape, canister, and shell, under which the 11th Ohio battery was with difficulty brought into position, with the 5th Iowa, Col. Matthias, and 26th Missouri, Col. Boomer, supporting it; the 48th Indiana, Col. Eddy, posted a little in advance of the battery, on the left of the road, holding their ground under a terrible fire; while the 4th Minnesota, Capt. Le Gro, and 16th Iowa, Col. Chambers, were hurried up to their support. The nature of the ground forbidding any extension of our front, the battle was thus maintained by a single brigade, against at least three times their numbers, until Col. Eddy was killed; when the remnant of his regiment was hurled back in disorder and our advanced battery clutched by the Rebels; but not till its every horse had been disabled and every officer killed or wounded. A charge was instantly made to recover it, and the guns were repeatedly taken and retaken; but they were finally dragged off the field by the Rebels, only to be abandoned in their flight from Iuka.

Stanley's division had meantime come up, pushing forward the 11th Missouri to the front; where, uniting with the 5th Iowa and 26th Missouri, it first checked the Rebel advance and then drove it back to the shelter of the ravine; while Col. Perczel, with the 10th Iowa and a section of Immell's battery, repulsed a Rebel attempt to turn our left. Col. Boomer fell, severely wounded, and darkness at length closed the battle: our men lying down on their arms, expecting to renew the struggle next morning; Gen. Stanley himself being at the front, along with Brig.-Gen. Sullivan and Col. J. B. Sanborn, who had bravely and skillfully directed the movements of Hamilton's two brigades; but not a regiment of Stanley's division, save the 11th Missouri, had been enabled to participate in the action; and not a shot had been fired from the direction whence Ord's advance had been confidently expected — the excuse for this being that Ord had only expected to attack after hearing the sound of Rosecrans's guns; and these a high wind from the north-west prevented his hearing at all.

Ord had been watching a Rebel demonstration from the south and west upon Corinth — which proved a mere feint — but had returned to Burnsville at 4 P. M.,32 when he was directed by Grant to move his entire force — which had been swelled by the arrival of Ross's division — to within four miles of Iuka, and there await the sound of Rosecrans's guns. Ross, in his advance, reported to him a dense smoke arising from the direction of Iuka; whence he inferred that Price was burning his stores and preparing to retreat. Next morning, hearing guns in his front, Ord moved rapidly into Iuka, but found no enemy there; Price having retreated on the Fulton road during the night. Ord, leaving Crock er's brigade to garrison Iuka, returned directly, by order, to Corinth; while Rosecrans — having first sent Stanley's [225] division into Iuka and found it abandoned — turned on the trail of the Rebels, and followed until night; but found they had too much start to be overtaken.

Hamilton reports that, in this affair of Iuka, not more than 2,800 men on our side were actually engaged, against a Rebel force of 11,000, holding a chosen and very strong position. Rosecrans reports our total loss in this battle at 782--144 killed, 598 wounded, and 40 missing; and that we buried on the field 265 Rebels, while 120 more died in hospital of wounds here received; 342 more were left wounded in hospital by the Rebels, and 361 were made prisoners. He estimates that they carried off 350 more of their less severely wounded; making their total loss 1,438. He states that he captured 1,629 stand of arms, 13,000 rounds of ammunition, beside large quantities of equipments and stores. Pollard says that the Rebel loss “was probably 800 in killed and wounded.”

Price retreated to Ripley, Miss., where lie united with a still stronger Rebel force, under Van Dorn, who had been menacing Corinth during the conflict at Iuka, but had retreated after its close, and who now assumed command, and, marching northward, struck the Memphis Railroad at Pocahontas, considerably westward of Corinth, thence pushing33 rapidly down the road to Chewalla, with intent to surprise, or at least storm, Corinth next day. Rosecrans — who had received34 his promotion to a Major-Generalship directly after the affair at Iuka — had been left in chief command at Corinth by Grant, who had returned to his own headquarters at Jackson, withdrawing Ord's division to Bolivar. Rosecrans had in and about Corinth not far from 20,000 men — too few to man the extensive works constructed around it by Beauregard, when lie held that position against Halleck's besieging army. Realizing this, Rosecrans had hastily constructed an inner line of fortifications, covering Corinth, especially toward the west, at distances of a mile or so from the center of the village. Promptly advised by his cavalry of the formidable Rebel movement northward, until it struck the line of his communications with Grant, he supposed its object to be Bolivar or Jackson, and that only a feint would be made on Corinth; but he was prepared for any emergency, having his forces well in hand and thrown out westward, into and beyond Beauregard's fortifications already mentioned. Hamilton held the right, with Davies in the center, and McKean on the left; while three regiments, under Col. Oliver, were thrown out in advance on the Chewalla road, down which the Rebels were advancing.

Van Dorn moved at an early hour, and, forming in order of battle at a distance from our outworks, his right, under Gen. Mansfield Lovell, encountered, at 7 1/2 A. M.,35 our left advance, under Col. Oliver, holding a hill which afforded a strong position, and a broad and extensive view of the country beyond it. He had orders to hold it pretty firmly, so as to compel the enemy to develop his strength.

Rosecrans, still distrusting that this attack was more than a feint, designed [226]


to cover a movement on Bolivar and Jackson, at 9 o'clock sent Gen. McArthur to the front, who reported widespread but slack skirmishing, and said the hill was of great value to test the strength of our assailants. McArthur, finding himself hotly assailed, called up four more regiments from McKean's division, and continued what by this time had become a serious engagement, until a determined Rebel charge, interposing be.tween his right and the left of Gen. Davies, forced him rapidly back from the hill, with the loss of 2 heavy guns; thus compelling a slight recoil of Davies also.

By 1 P. M., it had become evident that the attack was no feint, but meant the capture of Corinth, with its immense stores; and that success was to be struggled for right here. Accordingly, McKean's division, on our left, was drawn back to the ridge next beyond our inner intrenchments, and ordered to close with his right on Davies's left; Hamilton's division was moved down until its left touched Davies's right; while Stanley, moving northward and eastward, was to stand in close échelon with McKean, but nearer Corinth. These dispositions had scarcely been completed, under a most determined pressure on our center by the Rebels, which compelled Davies to give ground and call upon Stanley for aid, when night compelled a pause in the engagement; Col. Mower, with one of Stanley's brigades, having just come into tie fight; while Hamilton, working his way through an impracticable thicket, was just swinging in on the enemy's left. Van Dorn, supposing Corinth virtually his own, sent off to Richmond an electrifying [227] dispatch, claiming a great victory, and rested for the night on his laurels.

At 3 A. M.,36 the fight was reopened by the fire of a Rebel battery which had been planted during the night in front and but 200 yards distant from Fort Robinett, in our center, covering the road W. N.W. from Corinth to Chewalla. Shell were thrown into Corinth, exploding in streets and houses, and causing a sudden stampede of teamsters, sutlers, and non-combatants generally. No reply was made by our batteries till fair day-light; when Capt. Williams opened from Fort Williams with his 20-pound Parrotts, and in three minutes silenced the unseasonable disturber; two of whose guns were dragged off, while the third, being deserted, was taken and brought within our lines. By this time, the skirmishers of both sides had wormed their way into the swampy thickets separating the hostile forces; and their shots, at first scattering, came thicker and faster. Occasionally, there would be a lull in this fusillade, swiftly followed by considerable volleys. Batteries on both sides now came into full play, and shells were falling and bursting everywhere; but no Rebel masses, nor even lines of infantry, were visible; until suddenly, about 9 1/2 A. M., a vast column of gleaming bayonets flashed out from the woods east of the railroad, and moved sternly up the Bolivar road. Says the witnessing correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial:

A prodigious mass, with gleaming bayonets, suddenly loomed out, dark and threatening, on the east of the railroad, moving sternly up the Bolivar road in column by divisions. Directly, it opened out in the shape of a monstrous wedge, and drove forward impetuously toward the heart of Corinth. It was a splendid target for our batteries, and it was soon perforated. Hideous gaps were rent in it, but those massive lines were closed almost as soon as they were torn open. At this period, the skillful management of Gen. Rosecrans began to develop. It was discovered that the enemy had been enticed to attack precisely at the point where the artillery could sweep them with direct, cross, and enfilading fire. He had prepared for such an occasion. Our shell swept through the mass with awful effect; but the brave Rebels pressed onward inflexibly. Directly, the wedge opened and spread out magnificently, right and left, like great wings, seeming to swoop over the whole field before them. But there was a fearful march in front. A broad, turfy glacis, sloping upward at an angle of thirty degrees to a crest fringed with determined, disciplined soldiers, and clad with terrible batteries, frowned upon them. There were a few obstructions — fallen timber — which disordered their lines a little. But every break was instantly welded. Our whole line opened fire; but the enemy, seemingly insensible to fear, or infuriated by passion, bent their necks downward and marched steadily to death, with their faces averted like men striving to protect themselves against a driving storm of hail. The Yates and Burgess sharp-shooters, lying snugly behind their rude breastworks, poured in a destructive fire; but it seemed no more effectual than if they had been firing potato-balls, excepting that somebody was killed. The enemy still pressed onward undismayed. At last, they reached the crest of the hill in front and to the right of Fort Richardson, and Gen. Davies's division gave way. It began to fall back in disorder. Gen. Rosecrans, who had been watching the conflict with eagle eye, and who is described as having expressed his delight at the trap into which Gen. Price was blindly plunging, discovered the break, and dashed to the front, inflamed with indignation. He rallied the men by his splendid example in the thickest of the fight. Before the line was demoralized, he succeeded in restoring it, and the men, brave when bravely led, fought again. But it had yielded much space; and the loss of Fort Richardson was certain. Price's right moved swiftly to the headquarters of Gen. Rosecrans, took possession of it, and posted themselves under cover of the portico of the house, and behind its corners, whence they opened fire upon our troops on the opposite side of the public square. Seven Rebels were killed within the little inclosure in [228] front of the General's cottage. The structure is a sort of sieve now-bullets have punctured it so well. But the desperadoes got no farther into town.

Battle was raging about Fort Richardson. Gallant Richardson, for whom it was named, fought his battery well. Had his supports fought as his artillerymen did, the record would have been different. The Rebels gained the crest of the hill, swarmed around the little redoubt, and were swept away from it as a breath will dissipate smoke. Again they swarmed like infuriated tigers. At last, a desperate dash, with a yell. Richardson goes down to rise no more. His supports are not on hand. The foe shouts triumphantly and seizes the guns. Tile horses are fifty yards down the hill toward Corinth. A score of Rebels seize them. The 56th Illinois suddenly rises from cover in the ravine. One terrible volley, and there are sixteen dead artillery horses and a dozen dead Rebels. Illinois shouts, charges up the hill, across the plateau into the battery. The Rebels fly out through embrasures and around the wings. The 56th yells again and pursues.

The Rebels do not stop. Hamilton's veterans, meantime, have been working quietly — no lung-work, but gun-work enough. A steady stream of fire tore the Rebel ranks to pieces. When Davies broke, it was necessary for all to fall back. Gen. Rosecrans thought it well enough to get Price in deeply. A Rebel soldier says Van Dorn sat on his horse grimly and saw it all. “That's Rosecrans's trick,” said he; “he ” s got Price where he must suffer. “ Maybe this is one of the apocrypha of battle. A Rebel soldier says it ” s truth. But Hamilton's division receded under orders — at backward step; slowly, grimly, face to the foe, and firing. Bat when the 56th Illinois charged, this was changed. Davies's misfortune had been remedied. The whole line advanced. The Rebel host was broken. A destroying Nemesis pursued them. Arms were flung away wildly. They ran to the woods. They fled into the forests. Oh! what a shout of triumph and what a gleaming line of steel followed them. It is strange, but true. Our men do not often shout before battle. Heavens! what thunder there is in their throats after victory! “They” report that such a shout was never before heard in Corinth. Price's once “invincible” now invisible legions were broken, demoralized, fugitive, and remorse-lessly pursued down the hill, into the swamps, through the thickets, into the forests. Newly disturbed earth shows where they fell, and how very often.

Gen. Van Dorn's attack was to have been simultaneous with that of Price. The Generals had arranged to carry Corinth by one grand assault. In their reconnoissance Friday evening, they had found no fort where Fort Richardson was, and they overlooked Fort Robinett. Ugly obstacles. When they drove their wedge toward Corinth, one flange on the Bolivar road, the other on a branch of the Chewalla, they intended both wings should extend together. Topographical and artificial obstructions interrupted Van Dorn. He was obliged to sweep over a rugged ravine, through dense thickets, up hill, over a heavy abatis, with his left; it was necessary for his center to dip down hill under the fire of Fort Williams, Capt. Gau's siege-guns in the rear of the town, and under heavy musketry, while his right had to girdle a ride and move over almost insurmountable abatis under a point-blank fire of both Fort Williams and Fort Robinett, supported by a splendid division of veteran troops. The latter fort had 10-pounder Parrotts, three of them — the former 30-pounder Parrotts, which devour men. It was a task to be accomplished, or a terrible failure to be recorded. Price had comparatively plain sailing, and lost no time. Van Dorn was seven or eight minutes behind time. During that precious seven minutes, Price was overwhelmed, and Van Dorn was left with a feat of desperation to be accomplished. He tried it audaciously. His men obeyed magnificently. Evidently, he relied chiefly on Texas and Mississippi; for the troops of those States were in front. The wings were sorely distressed in the entanglement on either side. Two girdles of bristling steel glistened on the waist of the ridge. Two brigades, one supporting the front at close distance, moved up solidly toward the face of the fort. The Parrotts of both redoubts were pouring shot, and shell, and grape, and canister, into them from the moment of command--“Forward — charge!” shouted clearly from the brave Col. Rogers (acting Brigadier) of Texas. They tell me it was a noble exhibition of desperate daring. At every discharge, great gaps were cut through their ranks. No faltering, but the ranks were closed, and they moved steadily to the front, bending their leads to the storm. Dozens were slaughtered while thrusting themselves through the rugged timber, but no man wavered. Onward , onward, steady and unyielding as fate, their General in front. At last, they reach the ditch. It is an awful moment. They pause to take breath for a surge — a fatal pause. Texas Rogers, with the Rebel flag in his left, revolver in his right, advanced firing, leaped the ditch, scaled the parapet, waved his banner aloft, and tumbled headlong into the ditch. A patriot's bullet had killed him in the moment of triumph. Five Texans [229] who followed pitched forward through the embrasures like logs, and fell into the fort.

But we anticipate. Remember that the two redoubts are on the same ridge: Fort Williams commanding Fort Robinett, which is in front. Had the Rebels taken the latter, the guns of the former would have destroyed them. They were separated by a space riot exceeding one hundred and fifty yards. The Ohio brigade, commanded by Col. Fuller, was formed behind the ridge, on the right of the redoubts. The left of the 63d Ohio rested on Fort Robinett, its right joining the left of the 27th Ohio; the 39th was behind the 27th, supporting it; the right of the 43d joined the left of the 63d, forming a right angle with it, and extending to Fort Williams, behind the crest of the ridge. The 11th Missouri, Col. Mower (U. S. A.), was formed behind the 63d Ohio, its left in the angle, and the regiment faced obliquely to the right of the 63d. The positions of these gallant regiments should be described, because their actions are memorable.

Col. Fuller, perfectly collected, required his brigade to lie flat on their faces when not engaged. While the enemy was steadily approaching, he warned them to wait till they could see the whites of their eyes, then fire coolly. It was at the moment the Texan Rogers was flaunting his flag on our parapet, that the 63d was ordered to fire. Dead Capt. McFadden gave the first command of his life to fire on the field of battle, and lie fell mortally wounded. There were only 250 of the 63d in the conflict; but their volley was fearful. It is said fifty Rebels fell at once. Six volleys were fired, and the Rebels were gone. The 63d again lay down. Directly, the supporting brigade of the Rebels advanced. The 63d was ordered to make a half left wheel to sweep the front of the redoubt, and the maneuver was handsomely executed. The 11th Missouri moved on the left into line into the vacant space; the 43d moved by the right of companies to the left, and the 27th half-faced to the left. Suddenly. the enemy appeared; and a furious storm of lead and grape was launched at them. The 63d fired five or six volleys, and the Rebels rushed upon them. A terrific hand-to-hand combat ensued. The rage of the combatants was furious and the uproar hideous. It lasted hardly a minute, but the carnage was dreadful. Bayonets were used, muskets clubbed, and men were felled with brawny fists. Our noble fellows were victors, but at sickening cost. Of the 250 of the splendid 63d, 125 lay there on the field, wounded, dead, or dying. The last final struggle terminated with a howl of rage and dismay. The foe flung away their arms and fled like frightened stags to the abatis and forests. The batteries were still vomiting destruction. With the enemy plunging in upon him, brave Robinett, with his faithful gunners of the 1st United States Artillery, had double-shotted his guns and belched death upon the infuriate enemy; and now lie sent the iron hail after the fugitives with relentless fury. The abatis was full of them, but they were subdued. Directly, they began to wave their handkerchiefs upon sticks in token of submission, shouting to spare them “for God's sake.” Over two hundred of them were taken within an area of a hundred yards, and more than two hundred of them fell in that frightful assault upon Fort Robinett. Fifty-six dead Rebels were heaped up together in front of that redoubt, most of whom were of the 2d Texas and 4th Mississippi. They were buried in one pit; but their bravo General sleeps alone: our own noble fellows testifying their respect by rounding his grave smoothly and marking his resting-place.

A great shout went up all over Corinth. The battle was a shock. It really began at half-past 9 o'clock, and pursuit was commenced at 11 o'clock. The pursuit of the beaten foe was terrible. Sheets of flame blazed through the forest. Huge trunks were shattered by crashing shells. You may track the flying conflict for miles by scarified trees, broken branches, twisted gunbarrels and shattered stocks, blood-stained garments and mats of human hair, which lie on the ground where men died; hillocks which mark ditches where dead Rebels were covered, and smoothly rounded graves where slaughtered patriots were tenderly buried.

Gen. Rosecrans's official report says:

When Price's left bore down on our center in gallant style, their force was so overpowering that our wearied and jaded troops yielded and fell back, scattering among the houses. I had the personal mortification of witnessing this untoward and untimely stampede.

Riddled and scattered, the ragged head of Price's right storming columns advanced to near the house, north side of the square, in front of Gen. Halleck's former headquarters; when it was greeted by a storm of grape from a section of Immell's battery, soon reinforced by the 10th Ohio, which sent them whirling back, pursued by the 5th Minnesota, which advanced on them from their position near the depot.

Gen. Sullivan was ordered and promptly advanced to support Gen. Davies's center. His right rallied and retook battery Powell, into which a few of the storming column had penetrated; while Hamilton, having played upon the Rebels on his right, over [230] the open space effectively swept by his artillery, advanced on them, and they fled. The battle was over on the right.

During all this, the skirmishers of the left were moving in our front. A line of battle was formed on the ridge. About twenty minutes after the attack on the right, the enemy advanced in four columns on battery Robinett, and were treated to grape and canister until within fifty yards; when the Ohio brigade arose and gave them a murderous fire of musketry, before which they reeled and fell back to to woods. They, however, gallantly reformed and advanced again to the charge, led by Col. Rogers, of the 2d Texas. This time, they reached the edge of the ditch; but the deadly musketry fire of the Ohio brigade again broke them; and, at the word charge, the 11th Missouri and 27th Ohio sprang up and forward at them, chasing their broken fragments back to the woods. Thus by noon ended the battle of the 4th of October.

In his testimony before the Committee on the Conduct of the War, he says:

Between 3 1/2 and 4 o'clock A. M., the enemy opened his batteries furiously from a point in front of battery Robinett; but in the course of an hour lie was silenced and driven from his position. Our troops, thus aroused from their brief rest, which could scarcely be called slumber, nerved themselves for the coming fight; the brunt of which came on about 10 o'clock, when, the enemy charging our right center, Davies's division gave way, but speedily rallied, and, with the aid of Hamilton's division and a cross-fire from battery Robinett, poured in a fire so destructive that the enemy were thrown into confusion and finally driven from this part of the field; at the same time, he also charged battery Robinett; but was thoroughly repulsed, after two or three efforts. and retired to the woods. With our inferior numbers of exhausted troops, we stood on the defensive, sending skirmishers to the front and expecting another charge from the enemy, till about 3 o'clock P. M.; when, finding that their skirmishers yielded to ours, we began to push them, and by 4 o'clock became satisfied that they intended to retire from our immediate front; but so superior was their strength that I could not believe they would altogether abandon the operation. By 6 P. M., our skirmishers had pushed theirs back five miles.

Our soldiers, having now been marching and fighting some 48 hours, with very little rest, Gen. Rosecrans ordered all but those on the skirmish line to lie down, while five days rations should be issued to them, and that they should start in pursuit of the enemy early next morning ; but, just before sunset, Gen. McPherson arrived, with five fresh regiments from Gen. Grant, and was given the advance on the trail of the flying enemy, whom he followed 15 miles next day;37 having a skirmish with his rear-guard that night.

Meantime, another division, which Gen. Grant had pushed forward from Bolivar, at 3 A. M. of the eventful 4th, under Gen. Hurlbut, to the relief of Corinth, had struck the head of the enemy's retreating forces and skirmished with it considerably during the afternoon. Hurlbut was joined and ranked, next morning, by Ord. The Rebel advance, having crossed the Hatchie river at Davis's bridge, were encountered by Ord and driven back so precipitately that they were unable to burn the bridge, losing 2 batteries and 303 prisoners. Ord, being in inferior numbers, did not pursue across the river, but gathered up 900 small arms which the Rebels had thrown away. He reports that his losses in killed and wounded during that day's pursuit were several hundreds — probably exceeding those of the enemy, who fought only under dense cover, with every advantage of ground, compelling our men to advance across open fields and up hills against them. Gen. Veatch was among our wounded.

Van Dorn crossed the Hatchie that night at Crumm's Mill, 12 miles farther south, burning the bridge behind him. McPherson rebuilt the [231] bridge and crossed next day;38 continuing the pursuit to Ripley, followed by Rosecrans with most of his army, gathering up deserters and stragglers by the way. Rosecrans was anxiously eager to continue the pursuit, and telegraphed to Grant for permission to do so,39 believing the Rebel army utterly demoralized and incapable of resistance; but he was directed to desist and return to Corinth. Nine days after his return, he was relieved from his command at Corinth, and ordered to report at Cincinnati; where he found a dispatch directing him to supersede Gen. Buell in command of the Army of the Ohio and Department of the Cumberland, including all of Tennessee east of the Tennessee river.

Gen. Rosecrans reports his total loss at Corinth and in the pursuit at 2,359--315 killed, 1,812 wounded, and 232 missing; and says that the Rebel loss in killed alone was 1,423, with 2,248 prisoners.40 He estimated their loss in wounded at 5,692. He says the prisoners represented 53 regiments of infantry, 16 of cavalry, 13 batteries, and 7 battalions; and that their numbers engaged were nearly double his own,41 which he makes less than 20,000 in all.42 Among his trophies were 14 flags, 2 guns, 3,300 small arms, &c.; while the Rebels, in their retreat, blew up many ammunition and other wagons, and left the ground strewn with tents, accouterments, &c. Among our killed were Gen. Pleasant A. Hackleman,43 Col. Thomas Kilby Smith, 43d Ohio, and Cols. Thrush, Baker, and Miles; while Gen. Richard J. Oglesby,44 Adjt.-Gen. Clark, of Rosecrans's staff, and Col. Mower, 11th Missouri, were among the severely wounded. On the Rebel side, Acting Brigadiers Rogers, Johnston, and Martin were killed, and Cols. Pritchard, Daily, and McClain were wounded.

1 July 5, 1862.

2 July 2.

3 Aug. 19.

4 Aug. 24.

5 Aug. 27.

6 Aug. 30.

7 Sept. 1.

8 Aug. 22.

9 Aug. 13.

10 Aug. 17.

11 Aug. 17.

12 Aug. 29.

13 Sept. 1.

14 Sept. 5.

15 Sept. 13.

16 Sept. 16.

17 Sept. 17.

18 Oct. 1.

19 Formerly a member of Congress.

20 Oct. 4.

21 Sept. 15.

22 Oct. 1.

23 Oct. 6.

24 Union Member of Congress from the IId district of Kentucky; elected in 1861, by 9,281 votes, to 3,364 for Bunch, “State rights,” i e., semi-Rebel.

25 Oct. 9.

26 Oct. 30.

27 Pollard says:

It is to be admitted that the South was bitterly disappointed in the manifestations of public sentiment in Kentucky; that the exhibitions of sympathy in this State were meager and sentimental, and amounted to but little practical aid of our cause. Indeed, no subject was at once more dispiriting and perplexing to the South than the cautions and unmanly reception given to our armies both in Kentucky and Maryland. The references we have made to the sentiment of each of these States leaves but little room to doubt the general conclusion, that the dread of Yankee vengeance and love of property were too powerful to make them take risks against these in favor of a cause for which their people had a mere preference, without any attachments to it higher than those of selfish calculation.

28 Aug. 20.

29 About Sept. 1.

30 Sept. 18.

31 Sept. 19.

32 Sept. 19.

33 Oct. 2.

34 Sept. 20.

35 Oct. 3.

36 Saturday, Oct. 4.

37 Oct. 5.

38 Oct. 6.

39 He gives these reasons for his eagerness, in his testimony before the Committee on the Conduct of the War:

Mississippi was in our hands. The enemy had concentrated all his available force for an offensive movement, had been thoroughly beaten at Corinth, and had then retreated, blowing up his ammunition wagons and caissons; their men throwing away their camp and garrison equipage in the flight. The weather was cool; the roads were dry, and likely to be so for a month to come. Corn was ripe, and, as yet, untouched. We had 3,000,000 of rations in Corinth, and ammunition for six months. There was but one bridge injured on the Mobile and Ohio road; and it could be put in running order by a regiment in half a day. The enemy were so alarmed that, when Hamilton sent a reconnoissance to Blackland, they vacated Tupelo, burning even the bacon which they could not take away on the first train. I had eighty wagon-loads of assorted rations which had reached me that night at Ripley, and had ordered the 30,000 from Chewalla to Hurlbut.

40 Pollard — who rarely or never finds the Rebel losses the greater — says:

Our loss in all the three days engagements was probably quite double that of the enemy. In killed and wounded, it exceeded 3,000; and it was estimated, beside, that we had left more than 1,500 prisoners in the hands of the enomy.

41 He says, in his official report:

We fought the combined Rebel force of Mississippi, commanded by Van Dorn, Price, Lovell, Villipigue, and Rust in person; numbering, according to their own authority, 38,000 men.

42 He says, in his testimony before the Committee on the Conduct of the War:

Our own force in the fight was about 15,700 infantry and artillery, and about 2,500 effective cavalry.

43 Repeatedly a Whig candidate for Congress in the Franklin district, Indiana.

44 Since elected Governor of Illinois.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Sort places alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a place to search for it in this document.
Kentucky (Kentucky, United States) (23)
Iuka (Mississippi, United States) (18)
Bolivar, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (9)
Tennessee (Tennessee, United States) (7)
Perryville (Kentucky, United States) (7)
Frankfort (Kentucky, United States) (6)
Fort Hamilton (Ohio, United States) (6)
Mississippi (Mississippi, United States) (5)
Louisville (Kentucky, United States) (5)
Ripley (Mississippi, United States) (4)
Jacksboro (Texas, United States) (4)
Chewalla (Tennessee, United States) (4)
Chattanooga (Tennessee, United States) (4)
Burnsville (Mississippi, United States) (4)
Bardstown (Kentucky, United States) (4)
Texas (Texas, United States) (3)
Rodgersville (Tennessee, United States) (3)
Richmond, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (3)
London, Madison County, Ohio (Ohio, United States) (3)
Jacinto (Mississippi, United States) (3)
Indiana (Indiana, United States) (3)
Harrodsburg (Kentucky, United States) (3)
Cincinnati (Ohio, United States) (3)
Tupelo (Mississippi, United States) (2)
Springfield, Mo. (Missouri, United States) (2)
Shiloh, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (2)
Maryland (Maryland, United States) (2)
Knoxville (Tennessee, United States) (2)
Jackson (Mississippi, United States) (2)
Illinois (Illinois, United States) (2)
Glasgow, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (2)
Edgefield (Tennessee, United States) (2)
Danville, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (2)
Cynthiana, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (2)
Cumberland Gap (Tennessee, United States) (2)
Crab Orchard, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (2)
Camp Dick Robinson (Kentucky, United States) (2)
Alabama (Alabama, United States) (2)
Washington, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Washington (United States) (1)
Tuscumbia (Alabama, United States) (1)
Trenton (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Tennessee River (United States) (1)
Stanford, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Somerset, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Shepardsville (Ohio, United States) (1)
Pikeville (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Paris, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Ohio (United States) (1)
Ohio (Ohio, United States) (1)
Newburgh, Warrick County, Indiana (Indiana, United States) (1)
Mowers (New Jersey, United States) (1)
Mount Vernon (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Monticello (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Montgomery (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Mobile, Ala. (Alabama, United States) (1)
McMinnville (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Lawrenceburg (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Lancaster, Ohio (Ohio, United States) (1)
Lancaster, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Kingston (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Jamestown (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Jacksonboro (Ohio, United States) (1)
Huntsville (Alabama, United States) (1)
Henderson, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Hatchie River (United States) (1)
Harrison, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Green (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Georgia (Georgia, United States) (1)
Gallatin, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Fulton, Mo. (Missouri, United States) (1)
Crossville (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Clear Creek (Mississippi, United States) (1)
Chaplin Creek (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Carthage, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Bryantsville (Kentucky, United States) (1)
Blackland (Mississippi, United States) (1)
Big Creek Gap (Tennessee, United States) (1)
Barbourville (Kentucky, United States) (1)

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide People (automatically extracted)
Sort people alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a person to search for him/her in this document.
Braxton Bragg (30)
William S. Rosecrans (29)
Don Carlos Buell (21)
Sterling Price (18)
Kirby Smith (14)
E. Dorn (13)
Ord (12)
Ulysses S. Grant (12)
Davies (11)
D. S. Stanley (9)
M. D. Manson (9)
A. D. McCook (8)
George B. Crittenden (8)
Alexander Hamilton (6)
Gilbert (6)
Nelson (5)
T. J. Wood (4)
J. T. Wilder (4)
Philip H. Sheridan (4)
L. H. Rousseau (4)
John Rogers (4)
Pollard (4)
John Morgan (4)
R. B. Mitchell (4)
McKean (4)
James S. Jackson (4)
Terrill (3)
Preston Smith (3)
J. S. Scott (3)
Bishop Polk (3)
Mower (3)
W. H. Lytle (3)
Hurlbut (3)
Henry Wager Halleck (3)
Withers (2)
J. C. Sullivan (2)
J. W. Sill (2)
John Ross (2)
Richardson (2)
Oliver (2)
R. C. Murphy (2)
J. B. McPherson (2)
D. McCook (2)
George B. McClellan (2)
McArthur (2)
Mansfield Lovell (2)
Immell (2)
Richard Hawes (2)
Hardee (2)
O. P. Gooding (2)
Arthur B. Fuller (2)
N. B. Forrest (2)
Eddy (2)
Dick (2)
Patrick Cleburne (2)
B. F. Cheatham (2)
Bush (2)
Simon B. Buckner (2)
J. T. Boyle (2)
Boomer (2)
G. T. Beauregard (2)
Wolfe (1)
Saul Williams (1)
Wheeler (1)
George Webster (1)
Villipigue (1)
Veatch (1)
Topping (1)
Thrush (1)
William M. Stone (1)
Starkweather (1)
Thomas Kilby Smith (1)
Green Clay Smith (1)
J. B. Sanborn (1)
Albert Rust (1)
Robinett (1)
R. S. Ripley (1)
Pritchard (1)
Perczel (1)
M. M. Parsons (1)
Richard J. Oglesby (1)
Nemesis (1)
George W. Morgan (1)
Ormsby M. Mitchel (1)
D. S. Miles (1)
McMillan (1)
McFadden (1)
Daniel McCook (1)
McClain (1)
Maxwell (1)
Matthias (1)
Luther Martin (1)
John Marshall (1)
Link (1)
Robert E. Lee (1)
Joseph Johnston (1)
Stonewall Jackson (1)
Benjamin G. Harris (1)
Pleasant A. Hackleman (1)
Gro (1)
Gau (1)
Fulton (1)
Dunlap (1)
C. L. Dunham (1)
Duffield (1)
Jefferson Davis (1)
Daily (1)
Cruft (1)
Roscoe Conkling (1)
A. W. Clark (1)
T. J. Churchill (1)
Chambers (1)
James R. Chalmers (1)
J. R. Chalmers (1)
Carlin (1)
E. B. Brown (1)
Bolivar (1)
Edward D. Baker (1)
Patton Anderson (1)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: