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[253] that nothing effectual would be done by the colo-
chap XI.} 1757.

Of the central provinces, Pennsylvania approached most nearly towards establishing independent power. Its people had never been numbered, yet, with the counties on Delaware, were believed to be not less than two hundred thousand, of whom thirty thousand were able to bear arms.2 It had no militia established by law; but forts and garrisons protected the frontier, at the annual cost to the province of seventy thousand pounds currency. To the act of the former year, granting sixty thousand pounds, the Assembly had added a supplement, appropriating one hundred thousand more, and taxing the property of the proprietaries. But they would contribute nothing to a general fund, and disposed of all money themselves. The support of the governor was either not paid at all, or not till the close of the year. When any office was created, the names of those who were to execute it were inserted in the bill, with a clause reserving to the Assembly the right of nomination in case of death. The sheriffs and coroners, and all persons connected with the treasury, were thus nominated or were chosen by the people, annually, and were responsible only to their constituents. The Assembly could not be prorogued or dissolved, and adjourned itself at its own pleasure. It assumed almost all executive power, and scarce a bill came up without an attempt to encroach on the little residue. “In the Jerseys and in Pennsylvania,” wrote Loudoun, thinking to influence the mind of Pitt, ‘the majority ’

1 H. Sharpe to his brother, the Secretary to the Privy Council, 24 March, 1757.

2 Peters on the Constitution of Pennsylvania, drawn up for Lord Loudoun. Hazard, v. 339.

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