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Chapter 19:

The king Drives out the Newcastle Whigs.β€” the dawn of the New republic.


The world did not at once perceive the purposes
chap. XIX.} 1762.
of the new ministers, who were careful at first to adopt as literally as possible the orders of William Pitt, and his plan for conducting the war. He had infused his own haughtiness and determined spirit into the army and navy of England; the strings which he had struck with power still vibrated; his light, like that of β€˜an annihilated star,’ still shone brilliantly to the world; and it was without fear, that, in the first days of January, 1762, England, justified by the avowed alliance between the branches of the House of Bourbon, extended the strife to the Peninsula and the colonies of Spain.

Behold, then, at last, the great league of the Roman Catholic powers, France, Spain, Austria, and the German Empire, the mighty authorities of the Middle Age, blessed by the consecrating prayers of the see of Rome, and united in arms; but America and the future of humanity were already safe. The character of the war was changed. The alliance of

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