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Chapter 8:

England and France Contend for the Ohio valley and for Acadia.—Newcastle's administration continued.


anarchy lay at the heart of the institutions of
chap. VIII.} 1755.
Europe; the germ of political life was struggling for its development in the people of America. While doubt was preparing the work of destruction in the Old World, faith in truth and the formative power of order were controlling and organizing the free and expanding energies of the New. As yet, America refused union, not from unwillingness to devote life and fortune for the commonwealth, but from the firm resolve never to place its concentrated strength under an authority independent of itself. It desired not union only, but self-direction.

The events of the summer strengthened the purpose, but delayed the period, of taxation by parliament. Between England and France peace existed under ratified treaties; it was proposed not to invade Canada, but only to repel encroachments on the frontier from the Ohio to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. For this end, four expeditions were concerted by Braddock at Alexandria. Lawrence, the lieutenanternor

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